Books On Urinary Tract Infections
Published Resources For Women With UTI's And Cystitis

UTI Guide


UTI books

Books On UTIs

Contents

Books On Urinary Tract Infections
Studies and Clinical Trials


Recommended Reading

The following is a list of books concerning the treatment and management of urinary tract infections (UTIs). This list also includes published information on interstitial cystitis and alternative methods for treating the condition. These resources are aimed at women who have all but given up looking for a cure. We also include an extensive list of clinical research papers and studies, which may be useful for medical students or professionals working in the area of female gynecology.

Books On Urinary Tract Infections

A Seat on the Aisle, Please!: The Essential Guide to Urinary Tract Problems in Women by Elizabeth Kavaler (2006).
A Woman's Guide to Urinary Incontinence (A Johns Hopkins Press Health Book) by Rene Genadry and Jacek L. Mostwin (2007).
Chronic Candidiasis: Your Natural Guide to Healing with Diet, Vitamins, Minerals, Herbs, Exercise, and Other Natural Methods by Michael T. Murray (1997). See, also natural treatment for urinary tract infections.
Complete Candida Yeast Guidebook, Revised 2nd Edition: Everything You Need to Know About Prevention, Treatment & Diet by Jeanne Marie Martin and Zoltan P. Rona M.D. (2000).
Cystitis A Hidden Message by Diana Silvia Nicolaci (2011).
Cystitis: A Time to Heal with Yoga & Accupressure, An Eight Week Exercise Program with Special Information on Interstitial Cystitis & Urethral Syndrome by Emmey A. Ripoll and Dawn R. Mahowald (2003).

Herbs for the Urinary Tract by Michael Moore (1999).
Patients Encyclopedia of Urinary Tract Infection, Sexual Cystitis and Interstitial Cystitis: The international bible on self-help by Angela Kilmartin (2002).
Taste of the Good Life: A Cookbook for an Interstitial Cystitis Diet by Beverley Laumann (1998).
The Bathroom Key: Put an End to Incontinence by Kathryn Kassai Physical Therapist and Kim Perelli (2012).
The V Book: A Doctor's Guide to Complete Vulvovaginal Health by Elizabeth G. Stewart and Paula Spencer (2002).
The Yeast Connection: A Medical Breakthrough by William G. Crook (1986).
To Wake in Tears: Understanding Interstitial Cystitis by Catherine M. Simone (1998).
You Don't Have to Live with Cystitis by Larrian Gillespie (1996).

Studies And Clinical Research Papers

The Virulence of Escherichia Coli in Urinary Tract Infections

1. 1964 Urinary tract infection in schoolchildren: an epidemiological, clinical and laboratory study. Medicine (Baltimore), 43, 91-130.
2. (1965) Presentation, diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections in general practice. Lancet, i, 514.
3. (1968) Escherichia coli serotypes in urinary tract infection in a medical ward. Lancet, ii, 839-842.
4. (1967) Dip-slide: an aid to quantitative urine culture in general practice. British Medical Journal, iii, 343-348. See also, recurrent urinary tract infections.
5. (1973) Covert bacteriuria in childhood - a clinical and epidemiological study. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 48, 8-14.
6. (1973) The distribution of urinary O groups of Escherichia coli in urinary infections in the normal faecal flora, in Urinary Tract Infection, (ed. F. O'Grady and W. Brumfitt), Oxford University Press, London, pp. 139-145.

7. (1980) The Challenge of Urinary Tract Infection, Academic Press, London.
8. (1956) Asymptomatic infections of the urinary tract. Transactions of the Association of American Physicians, 69, 56-63. Symptoms of urinary tract infections.
9. (1975) Acquiescent renal infection. Kidney International, 7, 413-421.
10. (1983) Correlation of P blood group, vesico-ureteric reflux and bacterial attachment in patients with recurrent pyelonephritis. New England Journal of Medicine, 308, 1189-1192.
11. (1984) Virulence associated traits in Escherichia coli causing recurrent episodes of urinary tract infection in children with or without vesico-ureteric reflux. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 150, 561-569.
12. (1986) Renal scarring and non attaching bacteria. Lancet, ii, 1341.
14. (1974) The origin of O-serotypes of Escherichia coli in babies after normal delivery. Journal of Hygiene, 72, 67-78.
15. (1976) Escherichia coli in a maternity ward. Infection, 4, 146-152.
16. (1974) Human Intestinal Flora, Academic Press, London.
17. (1974) The Normal Microbial Flora of Man, Academic Press, London.
18. (1977) Microbial Ecology of the Gut, Academic Press, London. Books on yeast infections.
19. (1983) The normal bacterial flora of the body, in Principles of Bacteriology, Virology and Immunity, 7th edn, vol. 1, (eds G. Wilson and H. M. Dick), Edward Arnold, London, pp. 230-246.
20. (1943) Uber die Coliflora des gesunden Menschen. Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica, 20, 201-220.
21. (1943) Antigenic relationships of Escherichia coli isolated from one individual. Journal of Bacteriology, 45, 121-126.
22. (1961) The O Antigen Groups of Escherichia coli Cultures from Different Sources, Center for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA.
23. (1963) Preliminary investigation concerning the presence of Escherichia coli in man and various species of animals. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie, Parasitenleunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene, Abteilung 1: Originale, 188, 201-218.
24. (1968) Escherichia coli serotypes in urinary tract infections. Studies in domiciliary, ante-natal and hospital practice, in Urinary Tract Infection, (ed. E O'Grady and W. Brumfitt), Oxford University Press, London, pp. 68-79. See, urinary tract infection diagnosis.
26. (1966) The Bacteriology of Enterobacteriaceae, Munks-gaard, Copenhagen.
27. 1983) The Enterobacteriaceae, in Principles of Bacteriology, Virology and Immunity, 7th edn, vol. 2, (eds G. S. Wilson, A. A. Miles and M. R. Parker), Edward Arnold, London, pp. 272-284.
28. (1977) Serology, chemistry and genetics of O and K antigens of Escherichia coli. Bacteriological Reviews, 41, 667-710.
29. (1983) Serology of Escherichia coli fimbriae. Progress in Allergy, 33, 80-105.
30. (1980) Comparison of Escherichia coli fimbrial antigen F7 with type 1 fimbriae. Infection and Immunity, 27, 657-666.
31. (1984) P-fimbriated clones among uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. Infection and Immunity, 43, 149-155.
32. (1986) Analysis of P fimbriae of Escherichia coli 02, 04 and 06 strains by immunoprecipitation. Infection and Immunity, 51, 618-625.
33. (1982) Lack of adherence to epithelial cells by freshly isolated urinary pathogens. Lancet, i, 586-588.

34. (1983) The influence of growth media on the morphology and in vitro adherence characteristics of gram-negative urinary pathogens, journal of Urology, 129, 411-417. See also: Urinary tract infections in older women.
35. (1979) Bladder mucin: a scanning electron microscopy study in experimental cystitis. Journal of Urology, 128, 1060-1063.
36. (1971) The virulence for mice strains of Escherichia coli related to the effects of K antigens on their resistance to phagocytosis and killing by complement. Immunology, 20, 767-777'.
37. (1982) Bacterial endotoxins: chemical structure, biological activity and role in septicaemia. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases (Supplement), 31, 8-21.
39. (1981) Bacterial mechanisms for inhibition of ingestion by phagocytic cells, in Microbial Perturbations of Host Defences, (ed. F. O'Grady and H. Smith), Academic Press, London, pp. 121-135. See also, urinary tract infection treatments.
40. (1985) Bacterial adherence. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 4, 257-261.
41. (1978) Models for the specific adhesion of cells to cells. A theoretical framework for adhesion mediated by reversible bonds between cell surface molecules. Science, 200, 618-627.
42. (1981) The role of bacterial surface structures in pathogenesis. CRC Critical Reviews in Microbiology, 8, 303-338.
43. (1971) Immunoelec-trophoretic patterns of extracts from all Escherichia coli O and K test strains. Correlation with pathogenicity. Acta Pathologica Microbiologica Scandinavica, Section B: Microbiology and Immunology, 79B; 142-152.
44. (1982) Serum resistance among Escherichia coli strains causing urinary tract infection in relation to O type and the carriage of haemolysin, colicin and antibiotic resistance determinants. Infection and Immunity, 35, 270-275.
45. (1986) Effects of backbone structures and stereospecificities of lipid A subunit analogues on their biological activities. Journal of Biochemistry, 99, 1377-1384.
46. (1982) Absence of cell surface receptors for muramyl peptides in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Biology of the Cell, 44, 157.
47. (1987) Contribution of the mannan O side-chains to the adjuvant action of lipopolysaccharides. Immunology, 60, 503-507.
48. (1985) Evidence for separate genetic defects in C3H/HeJ and C3HeB/FeJ mice, that affect susceptibility to Gram-negative infections. Journal of Immunology, 134, 4118-4122.
49. (1987) Neutrophil recruitment and bacterial clearance correlated with LPS responsiveness in local Gram-negative infection. Journal of Immunology, 138,3475-3480.
50. (1988) Host resistance to mucosal gram-negative infection: susceptibility of lipopolysaccharide nonresponder mice. Journal of Immunology, 140, 3180-3185.
51. 1955) Non-flagellar filamentous appendages ('fimbriae') and haemagglutinating activity in Bacterium coli. Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology, 70, 335-348.
52. 1957) Fimbriae and adhesive properties in dysentery bacilli. Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology, 74, 397-348.
53. (1964) Functional anatomy of Escherichia coli with special reference to enteropathogenic E. coli. Revista Latinamericana de Micro-biologia, 7, 1-16.
54. (1966) Fimbriae and adhesive properties in salmonella. Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology, 92, 107-138.
55. (1980) Adhesive properties of Enterobacteriaceae, in Bacterial Adherence. Receptors and Recognition, series B, vol. 6, (ed. E. H. Beachey), Chapman &c Hall, London, pp. 185-217.
56. (1965) The structure, function, synthesis and genetic control of bacterial pili and a molecular model for DNA and RNA transport in gram-negative bacteria. Transactions of the New York Academy of Science, 27, 1003-1054.
57. (1975) Ecology, physiology and genetics of fimbriae and pili. Annual Reviews of Microbiology, 29, 79-108.
58. (1980) Structure and cell membrane binding properties of bacterial fimbriae, in Bacterial Adherence. Receptors and Recognition, series B, vol. 6, (ed. E. H. Beachey), Chapman & Hall, London, pp. 289-344.
59. (1988) Identification and characterisation of Escherichia coli type 1 tip adhesion protein. Nature, 332, 265-268.
60. (1972) Inhibition of the interaction between fimbrial hemagglutinins and erythrocytes by D-mannose and other carbohydrates. Journal of General Microbiology, 71, 149-157.
61. (1979) Prevention of colonisation of the urinary tract of mice with Escherichia coli by blocking of bacterial adherence with methyl a-o-mannopyranoside. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 139, 329-332.
62. (1981) Modified method for studying bacterial adhesion to isolated uroepithelial cells and uromucoid. Infection and Immunity, 34, 256-261.
63. (1979) Effect of pili on susceptibility of Escherichia coli to phagocytosis. Infection and Immunity, 24, 218-223.
64. (1984) Influence of adhesins on the interaction of Escherichia coli with human phagocytes. Infection and Immunity, 44, 672-680.

65. 1988) Type 1 fimbriate Escherichia coli stimulates a unique pattern of degranulation by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Infection and Immunity, 56, 815-822.
66. (1987) Membrane glycoproteins of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes that act as receptors for mannose-specific Escherichia coli. Infection and Immunity, 55,968-973.
67. (1985) Escherichia coli in human and animal disease, in The Virulence of Escherichia coli; Reviews and Methods, (ed. M. Sussman), Academic Press, London, pp. 7-46.
68. (1985) Gal-Gal binding, a-hemolysin phenotypes and genotypes associated with uropathogenic Escherichia coli. New England Journal of Medicine, 313, 414-420.
69. (1979) Adhesion of Escherichia coli to human periurethral cells is correlated to mannose-resistant agglutination of human erythrocytes. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 5, 295-299.
70. (1981) Structure of the carbohydrate part of the receptor on human uroepithelial cells for pyelonephritogenic Escherichia coli. Lancet, ii, 604-606.
71. (1980) Identification of a carbohydrate receptor recognised by uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Infection, 8, S288-S293.
72. (1980} The Pk antigen as receptor for the haemagglutinin of pyelonephritic Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 7, 297-302.
73. (1981) Mannose-resistant haemagglutination and P antigen recognition are characteristic of Escherichia coli causing primary pyelonephritis. Lancet, ii, 1366-1369.
74. (1993) P fimbriae of uropathogenic Escherichia coli as multifunctional adherence organelles. International Journal of Medical Microbiology, Virology, Parasitology and Infectious Diseases, 278, 229-237.
75. (1982) F7 and Type 1 like fimbriae from three Escherichia coli strains isolated from urinary tract infections: protein and immunological aspects. Infection and Immunity, 36, 462-468.
76. (1994) Occurrence of genes for P and S fimbriae and hemolysin in urinary Escherichia coli. Folia Microbiologica, 39, 159-161.
77. (1982) Blood groups M specific hemagglutination in pyelonephritogenic Escherichia coli. Lancet, i, 1192.
78.(1983) Escherichia coli strains binding to neuraminyl a2-3 galactosides. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 11, 456-461.
79. (1984) Escherichia coli fimbriae recognising sialyl galactosides. Journal of Bacteriology, 159, 762-766.
80. (1986) Influence of cloned Escherichia coli hemolysin genes, S-fimbriae and serum resistance on pathogenicity in different animal models. Microbial Pathogenesis, 1, 533-547.
81. (1982) Protein attachment factors: fimbriae in adhering Escherichia coli strains, in Seminars in Infectious Diseases, vol. IV, Bacterial Vaccines, (eds J. B. Robbins, J. C. Hill and J. C. Sadoff), Thieme Stratton, New York, pp. 97-103.
82. (1985) Occurrence of type 1C fimbriae on E. coli strains isolated from human extraintestinal infections. Journal of General Microbiology, 131, 1705-1711.
83. (1994) Reciprocal exchange of minor components of type 1 and Flc fimbriae results in hybrid organelles with changed receptor specificities. Journal of Bacteriology, 176, 2227-2234.
84. (1991) Virulence factors in Escherichia coli urinary tract infection. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 4, 80-128.
85. (1988) Presence of the Dr receptor in normal human tissues and the possible role in pathogenesis of ascending urinary tract infection. American Journal of Pathology, 133, 11-14.
86. (1959) Non-flagellar appendages of bacteria. Nature, 183, 782-786.
87. (1984) The fimA gene encoding the type 1 fimbrial subunit of Escherichia coli. European Journal of Biochemistry, 143, 395-399.
88. (1987) Three fim genes required for the regulation of length and mediation of adhesion of Escherichia coli type 1 fimbriae. Molecular and General Genetics, 208, 439-445.
89. (1984) Organisation and expression of genes responsible for Type 1 piliation in Escherichia coli. Journal of Bacteriology, 159, 736-744.
90. (1985) The fim genes responsible for synthesis of type 1 fimbriae in Escherichia coli, cloning and genetic organisation. Molecular and General Genetics, 199, 410-414.
91. Abraham, J. M, Freitag, C. S., Clements, J. R. and Eisenstein, B. I. (1985) An invertible element of DNA controls phase variation of type 1 fimbriae Escherichia coli. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 82, 5724-5727.
92. Klemm, P. (1986) Two regulatory fim genes, fimB and fimE control the phase variation of type 1 fimbriae in Escherichia coli. EMBO Journal, 5, 1389-1393.
93. Klemm, P. (1985) Fimbrial adhesins of Escherichia coli. Reviews of Infectious Diseases, 7, 321-339.
94. Minion, E C, Abraham, S. N., Beachey, E. H. and Gogren, J. D. (1986) The genetic determinant of adhesive function of type 1 fimbriae of Escherichia coli is distinct from the gene encoding the fimbrial subunit. Journal of Bacteriology, 165, 1033-1036.
95. Sokurenko, E. V., Courtney, H. S., Ohman, D. E. etal. (1994) FimH family of type 1 fimbrial adhesins: functional heterogeneity due to minor sequence variations among fimH genes. Journal of Bacteriology 176: 748-755
96. Lindberg, E, Lund, B., Johannsson, L. and Normark, S. (1987) Localisation of the receptor binding protein adhesin at the tip of the bacterial pilus. Nature (London), 328, 84-87.
97. Hull, R., Bieler, S., Falkow, S. and Hull, S. (1986) Chromosomal map position of genes encoding P adhesins in uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Infection and Immunity, 51, 693-695.
98. (1983) P fimbriae of Escherichia coli are subject to phase variation. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 19, 267-271.
99. (1984) Genes of pyelonephritogenic Escherichia coli required for digalactoside specific agglutination of human cells. EMBO Journal, 3, 1167-1173.
100. (1986) Gene products specifying adhesion of uropathogenic Escherichia coli are minor components of pili. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 83, 1891-1895.
101. (1987) Immunoelectron microscopic analysis of elongation of type 1 fimbriae in Escherichia coli. Journal of Bacteriology, 169, 157-163.
102. (1979) Form variation in Escherichia coli Kl: determined by acetylation of the capsular polysaccharide. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 149, 669-685.
103. (1977) Isolation and characterisation of Escherichia coli phase variants and mutants deficient in type 1 pilus production. Journal of Bacteriology, 130, 495-505.
104. (1983) Gonococcal pilus subunits size heterogeneity correlates with transitions in colony piliation phenotype, not with changes in colony morphology. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 158,1459-1472.
105. Lichodziejewska, M., Topley, N., Steadman, R. et al. (1989) Variable expression of P-fimbriae in Escherichia coli urinary tract infection. Lancet, i, 1414-1418.
106. (1987) Expression of P, type 1 and type 1C fimbriae of Escherichia coli in the urine of patients with acute urinary tract infection. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 156, 567-573.
107. (1941) A typhoid variant and a new serological variation in the Salmonella group. Journal of Bacteriology, 41, 127-140.
108. (1981) Phase variation in Escherichia coli is under transcriptional control. Science, 214, 337-339.
109. (1984) Immunofluorescence study of fimbrial phase variation in Escherichia coli KS71. Journal of Bacteriology, 160, 691-695.
110. (1985) Kinetics of phase variation between S and Type 1 fimbriae of Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 28, 237-242.
111. (1972) Serum bactericidal activity in patients with upper and lower urinary tract infections. Clinical Science, 43, 13-22.
112. (1975) Experimental Escherichia coli urinary infection in the rat. Kidney International, 8, 233-238.
113. (1973) The bactericidal effect of normal human serum on Escherichia coli strains from normal and from patients with urinary tract infections. Infection, 1, 24-28.
114. (1974) Host response in urinary tract infections. Kidney International, 5, 179-186.
115. (1960) Bactericidal activity of normal serum against bacterial cultures. II Activity against Escherichia coli strains. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 103, 632-636.
116. (1970) The sensitivity to complement of strains of Escherichia coli related to their K antigens. Immunology, 18, 331-346.
117. (1995) Role of alpha-hemolysin in resistance of Escherichia coli to bacterial action of human serum and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 371A; 691-693.
118. (1976) Immunochemical investigations on lipopolysacchar-ides and acidic exopolysaccharides from serum sensitive and serum resistant strains of Escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract infections. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 9, 405-421.
119. (1978) Escherichia coli in bacteraemia: K and O antigens and serum sensitivity of strains from adults and neonates. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 138, 33-41.
120. (1979) Escherichia coli K antigen in relation to serum induced lysis and phagocytosis. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 12, 123-130.
121. (1981) Molecular cloning of the Kl capsular polysaccharide genes of Escherichia coli. Nature (London), 289, 696-698.
122. (1976) Genetic mapping of the Kl and K4 antigens of Escherichia coli. Non-allelism of K(L) antigens with K antigen of 08:K27, 08:K8(L) and 09:K57(B). Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica, Section B, 84, 125-131.
123. Taylor, P. W. (1983) Bactericidal and bacterolytic activity of serum against gram-negative bacteria. Microbiological Reviews, 47, 46-83.
124. Jorgensen, S. E., Hammer, R. F. and Wu, G. K. (1980) Effects of a single molecule from alpha hemolysin produced by Escherichia coli on the morphology of sheep erythrocytes. Infection and Immunity, 27, 988-994.
125. Myers, D. E., Stocker, B. A. D. and Roantree, R. J. (1980) Mapping of genes determining penicillin resistance and serum sensitivity in Salmonella enterittdis. Journal of General Microbiology, 118, 367-376.
126. Nelson, B. W. and Roantree, R. J. (1967) Analyses of lipopolysaccharides extracted from penicillin resistant, serum-sensitive Salmonella mutants. Journal of General Microbiology, 48, 179-188.
127. Williams-Smith, H. (1974) A search for a transmissible pathogenic characteristic in invasive strains of Escherichia coli: the discovery of a plasmid-controlled toxin and a plasmid controlled lethal character closely associated or identical with colicine V. Journal of General Microbiology, 83, 95-111.
128. Binns, M. M., Mayden, J. and Levine, R. P. (1982) Further characterisation of complement resistance conferred on Escherichia coli by the plasmid genes traT of R100 and iss of Col V, 1-94. Infection and Immunity, 35, 654-659.
129. (1976) Plasmid mediated resistance to the bactericidal effects of normal rabbit serum. Infection and Immunity, 13,848-850.
130. Moll, A., Manning, P. A. and Timmis, K. N. (1980) Plasmid determined resistance to serum bactericidal activity: a major outer membrane protein, the traT gene product is responsible for plasmid specified serum resistance Escherichia coli. Infection and Immunity, 28, 359-367.
131. Ogata, R. T., Wintens, C. and Levine, R. P. (1982) Nucleotide sequence analysis of the complement resistance gene from plasmid R100. Journal of Bacteriology, 155, 819-827.
132. (1981) Serum resistance in Escherichia coli, in The Molecular Biology, Pathogenicity and Ecology of Bacterial Plasmtds, (eds S. B. Levy, R. C. Clowes and E. L. Koenig), Plenum Press, London, pp. 113-144.
133. (1978) Iron and infection. Microbiological Reviews, 42, 45-66.
134. (1978) Role of iron in bacterial infection. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, 80, 1-35.
135. (1968) The effect of iron compounds on the virulence of Escherichia coli for guinea pigs. Immunology, 15, 581-588.
136. (1982) Effect of iron on acute pyelonephritis and later changes. Kidney International, 21, 808-812.
137. Griffiths, E. (1985) Candidate virulence markers, in The Virulence of Escherichia coli; Reviews and Methods, (ed. M. Sussman), Academic Press, London, pp. 193-226.
138. Harris, W. R., Carrano, C. J. and Raymond, K. N. (1979) Spectrophotometry determination of the proton-dependent stability constant of ferric enterobactin. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 101, 2213-2214.
139. Raymond, K. N. and Carrano, C. J. (1979) Coordination chemistry of microbial iron transport. Accounts of Chemical Research, 12, 183-190.
140. Hollifield, W. C. Jr and Neilands, J. B. (1978) Ferric enterobactin transport system in Escherichia coli K12. Extraction, assay and specificity of the outer membrane receptor. Biochemistry, 17, 1922-1928.
141. (1981) Ferric citrate transport in Escherichia coli requires outer membrane protein receptor protein Fee A. Journal of Bacteriology, 145, 156-163.
142. Neilands, J. B. (1982) Microbial envelope proteins related to iron. Annual Reviews of Microbiology, 36, 285-309.
143. Braun, V., Hancock, R. E. W., Hantke, K. and Hartmann, A (1976) Functional organisation of the outer membrane of Escherichia coli: phage and colicin receptors as components of iron uptake systems. Journal of Supramolecular Structure, 5, 37-58.
144. (1980) Hydroxamate-mediated transport of iron controlled by Col V plasmids. Journal of Bacteriology, 143, 35-42.
145. Williams, P. H. and Warner, P. J. (1980) Col V plasmid mediated colicin V independent iron uptake system on invasive strains of Escherichia coli. Journal of Bacteriology, 133, 1524-1526.
146. (1982) An inducible outer membrane protein involved in aerobactin-mediated iron transport by Col V strains of Escherichia coli. FEBS Letters, 140, 27-30.
147. (1986) Iron, siderophores and the pursuit of virulence: independence of the aerobactin and enterochelin iron uptake systems in Escherichia coli. Infection and Immunity, 51, 942-947.
148. (1986) Aerobactin-mediated iron-uptake by Escherichia coli isolates from human extra intestinal infection. Infection and Immunity, 51, 966-968.
149. Smith, H. W. (1963) The haemolysins of Escherichia coli. Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology, 85, 197-211.
150. Watton, S. J. and Smith, D. H. (1969) New haemolysin produced by Escherichia coll. Journal of Bacteriology, 98, 304-305.
151. (1969) Some factors affecting production and assay of Escherichia coli hemolysins. Journal of General Microbiology, 55, 139-143.
152. Snyder, I. S. and Koch, N. A. (1969) Production and characteristics of hemolysin of Escherichia coli. Journal of Bacteriology, 91, 763-767.
153. (1983) In vivo function of hemolysin in the nephropathogenicity of Escherichia coli. Infection and Immunity, 42, 245-249.
154. Springer, W. and Goebel, B. (1980) Synthesis and secretion of hemolysin by Escherichia coli. Journal of Bacteriology, 144, 53-59.
155. (1984) Escherichia coli a-hemolysin: characteristics and probable role in pathogenicity. Microbiological Reviews, 48, 326-343.
156. Rennie, R. P., Freer, J. H. and Arbuthnott, J. P. (1974) The kinetics of erythrocyte lysis by Escherichia coli hemolysin. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 7, 189-195.
157. (1971) Properties of the haemolytic activities of Escherichia colt. Infection and Immunity., 3, 678-687. See also, books on alternative medicine and books on women's health.
158. Brooks, H. J., O'Grady, E, McSherry, M. A. and Cattell, W. R. (1980) Uropathogenic properties of Escherichia coli in recurrent urinary tract infections. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 13, 57-68.
159. Hughes, C, Hacker, J., Roberts, A. and Goebel, W. (1983) Hemolysin production as a virulence marker in symptomatic and asymptomatic urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli. Infection and Immunity, 39, 546-551.
160. Emody, L., Batai, I. Jr, Kerenyi, M. et al. (1982) Anti-Escherichia coli alpha hemolysin in control and patient sera. Lancet, ii, 986.
161. (1979) Virulence of Escherichia coli in experimental hematogenous pyelonephritis in mice. Infection and Immunity, 25, 68-74.
162. (1981) Haemolysis by urinary Escherichia coli and virulence in mice. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 14, 321-331.
163. Van den Bosch, J. E, Emody, L. and Ketyi, I. (1982) Virulence of hemolytic strains of Escherichia colt in various animal models. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 13, 427-430.
164. Sahu, S. and Lynn, W. S. (1977) Lipid chemotaxins isolated from culture filtrates of Escherichia coli and from oxidised lipids. Inflammation, 2, 47-54.
165. Schiffman, E., Showell, H. V., Vorvoran, B. A. et al. (1975) The isolation and partial characterisation of neutrophil chemotactic factors from Escherichia coli. Journal of Immunology, 114, 1831-1837.
166. (1986) Generation of leukotrienes by human monocytes in response to chemotactic peptide. Clinical Science, 70, 55.
167. (1986) Generation of leukotrienes by human monocytes pretreated with cytochalasin B and stimulated with formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. Journal of Immunology, 136, 642-648.
168. (1986) Purification and identification of formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine as the major peptide neutrophil chemotactic factor produced by Escherichia coli. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 259, 5430-5439.
169. (1981) Adhesion, haemagglutination and virulence of Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infections. Infection and Immunity, 31, 564.
170. Korhonen, T. K., Vaisanen, V., Saxen, H. et al. (1982) P-antigen recognizing fimbriae from human uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. Infection and Immunity, 37, 286-291.
171. (1982) The biological and serological properties of adhesion determinants of Escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract infections, in Clinical, Bacteriological and Immunological Aspects of Urinary Tract Infection in Children, (ed. H. Schulte-Wissermann), Georg Thieme, Stuttgart, pp. 113-125.
172. Sussman, M., Parry, S. H., Rooke, D. M. and Lee, M. J. S. (1982) Bacterial adherence and the urinary tract. Lancet, i, 1352.
173. Roberts, J. A. (1992) Vesicoureteral reflux and pyelonephritis in the monkey: a review. Journal of Urology, 148, 1721-1725.
174. Kallenius, G., Mollby, R., Svenson, S. B. et al. (1981) Occurrence of P fimbriated Escherichia coli in urinary tract infections. Lancet, ii, 1369-1372.
175. (1992) The molecular study of bacterial virulence: a review of current approaches, illustrated by the study of adhesion in uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Pediatric Nephrology, 6, 587-596.
176. (1992) Escherichia coli virulence factors and [99mTc]-dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan in children with febrile urinary tract infection. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 11, 343-349.
177. (1980) Chemical identification of a glycosphingolipid receptor for Escherichia colt attaching to human urinary tract epithelial cells and agglutinating human erythrocytes. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 8, 127-134.
178. (1983) Density and localisation of P-fimbriae - specific receptors on mammalian cells: fluorescence-activated cell analysis. Infection, 11, 6-12.
179. (1963) On the neutral glycolipids of human kidney. Acta Chimica Scandinavica, 17, 2356-2358.
180. (1970) Localization of glycosphingolipids in human tissues by immunofluorescence. Journal of Immunology, 104, 1530-1539.
181. (1981) Pj blood group and urinary tract infection. Lancet, i, 551-552
182. (1982) Clinical pyelonephritic and focal scarring. A selected review of pathogenesis, prevention and prognosis. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 29, 801-842.
183. (1975) Morbidity age and sex distribution, recurrences and renal scarring in asymptomatic urinary tract infection in childhood. Kidney International, 8, S101-S106.
184. (1983) Contribution of adhesion to bacterial persistence in the mouse urinary tract. Infection and Immunity, 40, 265-272.
185. (1983) Bacterial adherence - a pathogenic mechanism in urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli. Progress in Allergy, 33, 175-188.
186. (1983) A comparative study of the mannose-resistant and mannose sensitive haemagglutinins of Escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract infections. Infection, 11, 123-128.
187. (1993) Isogenic P-fimbnal deletion mutants of pyelonephritogenic Escherichia coli: the role of alpha gal(l-4) beta gal binding in virulence of a wild-type strain. Molecular Microbiology, 10, 143-155.
188. (1994) Virulence characteristics of Escherichia coli in relation to host response in men with symptomatic urinary tract infection. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 18, 579-584.
189. (1995) Comparison of expression of virulence factors by Escherichia coli causing cystitis and E. coli colonizing the periurethra of healthy girls. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 172, 772-777.
190. (1986) Virulence factors of urinary pathogens. Clinical Science, 70, 531-538.
191. (1977) Role of surface mucin in primary antibacterial defense of bladder. Urology, 9, 48-52.
192. (1978) Bladder surface mucin - examination of possible mechanisms for its antibacterial effect. Investigative Urology, 16, 196-200.
193. (1979) Antibacterial activity of bladder surface mucin duplicated by exogenous glycosamino-glycan (heparin). Infection and Immunity, 24, 552-557.
194.(1979) An electron microscope study of the interaction between vesical epithelium and Escherichia coli. Investigative Urology, 17, 61-68.
195. (1984) Scanning electron microscopy of human bladder mucosa in acute and chronic urinary tract infections. British Journal of Urology, 56, 38-43.
196. Race, R. R. and Sanger, R. (1975) Blood Groups in Man, 6th edn, Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 547-577.
197. Cruz-Coke, R., Parades, L. and Montenegro, A. (1965) Blood groups and urinary microorganisms. Journal of Medical Genetics, 2, 185-188.
198. (1977) ABO blood groups and cholera. Annals of Human Biology, 4, 489-492.
199. (1976) Relation of infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae to ABO blood groups. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 133, 329-
200. (1970) Effects of secretor, blood and serum groups on isoantibody and immunoglobulin levels. American Journal of Human Genetics, 22, 194-202.
201. (1989) Association of the Lewis blood group phenotype with recurrent urinary tract infection in women. New England Journal of Medicine, 320, 773-777.
202. (1995) P^ blood group phenotype, secretor status in patients with urinary tract infections. Clinical Nephrology, 44, 376-381.
203. (1982) ABO blood group, secretor status and susceptibility to urinary tract infection. British Medical Journal, iii, 7-9.
204. (1985) Lack of correlation of P blood group phenotype and renal scarring. Kidney International, 28, 797-800.
205. Burden, D. W. (1970) Quantitative studies of urinary immunoglobulins in hospital patients including patients with urinary tract infections. Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 6, 189-196.
206. (1983) Does low urinary slgA predispose to urinary tract infection. Kidney International, 23, 759-763.
207. (1975) Treatment of bacteriuria in schoolgirls. Kidney International, 8(Suppl. 4), 85-89.
208. (1973) Protection against enteric bacterial infection by slgA antibodies. Journal of Immunology, 111, 395-403.
209. (1978) Secretory immunoglobulin A and G antibodies prevent adhesion of Escherichia colt to human urinary tract epithelial cells. Infection and Immunity, 22, 790-797.
210. (1972) The protective effect against E. coli of O and K antibodies of different immunoglobulin classes. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, 1, 27-33.
211. (1981) Antibodies to lipid A in urinary tract infections. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 144, 319-328.
212. (1972) Significance of amount and avidity of E. coli O antibodies for manifestation of their serological and protective properties. International Archives of Allergy and Applied Immunology, 42, 826-835.
213. (1974) The effect of active immunization on ascending pyelonephritis in the rat. Journal of Pathology, 112, 169-175.
214. (1982) Serum and urogenital antibody response to E. coli pili in cystitis. Infection and Immunity, 38, 542-547.
215. (1987) Serological response to the P-fimbriae of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in pyelonephritis. Infection and Immunity, 55, 2204-2207.
216. (1975) Different roles for IgG and complement receptors in phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Journal of Immunology, 115, 15-21.
217. (1993) Selective cytokine production by epithelial cells following exposure to Escherichia coli. Infection and Immunity, 61, 602-609.
218. Agace, W., Hedges, S., Ceska, M. and Svanborg, C. (1993) Interleukin-8 and the neutrophil response to mucosal Gram-negative infection. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 92, 780-785.
219. (1991) lnterleukin-6 response to deliberate colonization of the urinary tract with Gram-negative bacteria. Infection and Immunity, 59, 421-427.
220. (1992) Comparison of urine and serum concentrations of interleukin-6 in women with acute pyelonephritis or asymptomatic bacteriuria. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 166, 653-656.
221. (1992) Interleukin-6 response of epithelial cell lines to bacterial stimulation in vitro. Infection and Immunity, 60, 1295-1301.
222. (1989) IL-6 inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor production in cultured human monocytes, U937 cells, and in mice. Journal of Immunology, 143, 3517-3523.
223. (1990) Correlations in the production of interleukin-6, IL-1 and TNFa in human blood mononuclear cells: IL-6 suppresses IL-1 and TNE Blood, 75, 40-47.
224. (1991) Adhesin-dependent activation of mucosal interleukin-6 production. Infection and Immunity, 59, 4357-4362.
225. (1996) Tumour necrosis factor soluble receptors I and II and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in acute pyelonephritis in relation to bacterial virulence-associated traits and renal function. Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, 11, 2209-2214.
226. Weiss, S. (1989) Tissue destruction by neutrophils. New England Journal of Medicine, 320, 365-376.
227. (1993) Composition and organisation of the NADPH oxidase of phagocytes and other cells. Biochemical Society Transactions, 21, 343-346.
228. Svanborg-Eden, C, Bjorksten, L. M., Hull, R. et al. (1984) Influence of adhesins on the interaction of Escherichia coli with human phagocytes. Infection and Immunity, 44, 672-680.
229. (1982) Interactions between human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and two different strains of Type 1 fimbriae bearing Escherichia coli. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 146, 751-757
230. (1980) Adhesive properties of Enterobacter-iaceae, in Bacterial Adherence. Receptors and Recognition, series B, vol. 6, (ed. E. H. Beachey), Chapman 8c Hall, London, pp. 185-217.
231. (1979) Effect of pili on susceptibility of Escherichia coli to phagocytosis. Infection and Immunity, 24, 218-223.
232. Blumenstock, E. and Jann, K. (1982) Adhesion of piliated Escherichia coli strains to phagocytes; differences between bacteria with mannose-sensitive pili and those with mannose-resistant pili. Infection and Immunity, 35, 264-269.
233. Goetz, M. B. (1987) Phagolysosome formation by polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes after ingestion of Escherichia coli that express type 1 pili. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 156, 229-233.
234. Goetz, M. B. (1989) Priming of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocyte oxidative activity by type 1 pili from Escherichia coli. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 159, 533-542.
235. Steadman, R., Topiey, N., Jenner, D. E. et al. (1988) Type 1 fimbriate Escherichia coli stimulates a unique pattern of degranulation by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Infection and Immunity, 56, 815-822.
236. Topiey, N., Steadman, R., Mackenzie, R. K. et al. (1989) Type 1 fimbriate strains of Escherichia coli initiate renal parenchymal scarring. Kidney International, 36, 609-616.
237. (1990) Degradation of basement membrane laminin by human neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G. American Journal of Pathology, 136, 1267-1274.
238. (1993) Laminin cleavage by activated human neutrophils yields proteolytic fragments with selective migratory properties. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 53, 354-365.
239. (1987) Membrane glycoproteins of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes that act as receptors for mannose-specific Escherichia coli. Infection and Immunity, 55, 968-973.
240. Gabarah, A., Gahmberg, C. G., Ofek, I. etal. (1991) Identification of the leukocyte adhesion molecules CD 11 and CD 18 as receptors for type-1-fimbriatred (mannose-specific) Escherichia coli. Infection and Immunity, 59, 4524-4530.
241. (1986) Adhesion-promoting receptors on human macrophages recognise Escherichia coli by binding to lipopoly-saccharide. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 164, 1876-88.
242. (1987) Opsonin-independent ligation of Fc y receptors. The 3G8-bearing receptors on neutrophils mediate the phagocytosis of concanavalin A-treated erythrocytes and non-opsonised Escherichia coli. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 166, 1798-813.
243. (1980) Complement-independent adherence of Escherichia coli to complement receptors in vitro. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 66, 465-472.
244. (1991) Human neutrophil responses to pathogenic Escherichia coli are receptor specific and selectively augmented by recombinant human TNFa. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 163, 1033-1039.
245. (1989) Lectin-mediated non-opsonic phagocytosis of type 1 Escherichia coli by human peritoneal macrophages of uremic patients treated by peritoneal dialysis. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 46, 239-245.
247. (1990) Leukotriene B4 generation by human monocytes and neutrophils stimulated by uropathogenic strains of Escherichia colt. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1052, 264-272.
248. (1989) The assessment of relative surface hydrophobicity as a factor involved in the activation of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes by uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1013, 21-27.
249. (1982) An assessment of the surface charge of single resident and exudate macrophages and multinucleate giant cells. Journal of Pathology, 138, 17-24.
250. (1988) Surface charge of macrophages and their interaction with charged particles. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 44, 17-26.
251. (1982) Cytotoxic activity of partially purified Escherichia coli alpha hemolysin. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 15,11-21.
253. (1982) Effect of Escherichia coli alpha hemolysin on human peripheral leukocyte function in vitro. Infection and Immunity, 37, 966-974.
254. (1985) Bacterial adherence and hemolysin production from Escherichia coli involves histamin and leukotriene release from various cells. Infection and Immunity, 50, 271-278.
255. (1986) Role of Escherichia coli alpha hemolysin and bacterial adherence in infection; requirement for release of inflammatory mediators from granulocytes and mast cells. Infection and Immunity, 54, 886-892.
256. (1990) Inflammatory lipid mediator generation elicited by viable haemolysin forming Escherichia coli in lung vasculature. Journal of Experimental Medicine 172(4); 1115-1125.
257. (1988) Tumour necrosis factor is the major monocyte product that increases complement receptor expression on mature human neutrophils. Blood, 71, 151-158.
258. (1990) Differential augmentation by recombinant human tumour necrosis factor a of neutrophil responses to particulate zymosan and glucan. Journal of Immunology, 144, 2712-2718.
259. (1990) Zymosan induced leukotriene B4 generation by human neutrophils is augmented by rhTNFa but not chemotactic peptide. Immunology, 70, 75-81.
260. (1982) Protection against chronic pyelonephritis in rats by suppression of acute suppuration: effect of colchicine and neutropenia. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 146, 220-226.
261. (1982) Prevention of scarring in experimental pyelonephritis in the rat by early antibiotic therapy. Nephron, 30, 262-268.
262. (1989) Relationship between neutrophil-mediated oxidative injury during acute experimental pyelonephritis and chronic renal scarring. Infection and Immunity, 57, 2196-2202.
263. (1989) Neutrophils show chemotaxis to type IV collagen and its 7S domain and contain a 67kD type IV collagen binding protein with lectin properties. American Journal of Respiratory Cellular and Molecular Biology, 1, 479-487.
264. (1992) Local cytokine production in a murine model of Escherichia coli pyelonephritis. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 89, 1032-1039
.

The Yeast Connection

Symptoms of yeast infections: How to recognize the signs.
Causes of yeast infections: Underlying causes of problems.
Yeast infection treatment: Medications and treatment options.
Natural remedies for yeast infections: Supplements, diet and alternative therapies.
Yeast infection diet plan: Foods to eat, foods to avoid.

Pathogens Other Than Escherichia Coli as Aetiological Agents In UTI's

1. Brumfitt, W. (1972) Bacterial aspects of renal diseases, in Renal Disease, (ed. D. A. K. Black), Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 367-397.
1A. Gruneberg, R. N. (1994) Changes in urinary pathogens and their antibiotic sensitivities, 1971-1992. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 33(Suppl. A).
2. Jones, R. N., Hoban, D. J. and the North American Ofloxacin Study Group (1994) North American (United States and Canada) comparative susceptibility of two fluoroquinolones: ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 18, 49-56.
3. Hamilton-Miller, J. M. T. and Purves, D. (1986) Trimethoprim resistance and trimethoprim usage in and around The Royal Free Hospital in 1986. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 18, 643-644.
4. Brumfitt, W., Hamilton-Miller, J. N. T., Ludlam, H. and Bax, R. (1983) Organization and function of a urinary infection clinic - part 1. British Journal of Hospital Medicine, 30, 308-312.
5. Brumfitt, W., Smith, G. W. and Hamilton-Miller, J. M. T. (1983) Organization and function of a urinary infection clinic - part 2. British Journal of Hospital Medicine, 30, 381-387.
6. Gutman, S. I. and Solomon, R. R. (1987) The clinical significance of dipstick-negative, culture-positive urines in a veterans population. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 88, 204-209.
7. Pead, L. and Maskell, R. (1981) Urinary tract infections in adult men. Journal of Infection, 3, 71-78.
8. Khan, A. J., Ubriani, R. S., Bombach, E. et al. (1978) Initial urinary tract infection caused by Proteus mirabilis in infancy and childhood. Journal of Pediatrics, 93, 791-793.
9. Maskell, R. Pead, L. and Hallett, R. J. (1975) Urinary pathogens in the male. British Journal of Urology, 47, 691-694.
10. Burbige, K. A., Retik, A. B., Colodny, A. H. et al. (1984) Urinary tract infection in boys. Journal of Urology, 132, 541-542.
11. Almigeiren, M. M. and Qadri, S. M. H. (1991) Etiology of childhood urinary tract infections and antimicrobial susceptibility of uropathogens at a Teaching Hospital in Saudi Arabia. Current Therapeutic Research, 50, 454-459.
12. Boscia, J. A., Kobasa, W. D., Knight, R. A. et al. (1986) Epidemiology of bacteriuria in an elderly ambulatory population. American Journal of Medicine, 80, 308-214.
13. Wolfson, S. A., Kalmanson, G. M., Rubini, M. E. and Guze, L. B. (1965) Epidemiology of bacteriuria in a predominantly geriatric male population. American Journal of Medical Sciences, 250, 168-173.
14. Kincaid-Smith, P. (1965) Bacteriuria in pregnancy, in Progress in Pyelonephritis, (ed. E. H. Kass), F. A. Davis, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 11-26.
15. Whalley, P. J. (1965) Bacteriuria in pregnancy, in Progress in Pyelonephritis, (ed. E. H. Kass), F. A. Davis, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 11-26.
16. Savage, W. E., Hajj, S. N. and Kass, E. H. (1967) Demographic and prognostic characteristics of bacteriuria in pregnancy. Medicine, 46, 385-407.
17. Williams, J. D. (1986) Bacteriuria in pregnancy, in Microbial Diseases in Nephrology, (ed. A. W. Asscher and W. Brumfitt), John Wiley, Chichester, pp. 159-181.
18. (1988) Bacteriuria and bacteraemia in patients with long-term indwelling catheters - domiciliary study. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 26, 61-65.
19. (1987) Indwelling catheters in the elderly. American Journal of Medicine, 82, 405-411.
20. Thong, M. L. (1975) Acinetobacter anitratus infections in man. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine, 5, 435-439.
21. Gerner-Smidt, P. and Frederiksen, W. (1993) Acinetobacter in Denmark: 1 Taxonomy, antibiotic susceptibility, and pathogenicity of 112 clinical strains. Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica, 101, 815-825.
22. Hoffman, S., Mabeck, C. E. and Vejlsgaard, R. (1982) Bacteriuria caused by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus biovars in a normal population and in general practice. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 16, 443-451.
23. Muller-Seneys, C, Lesquoy, J. B., Perez, E. et al. (1989) Infections nosocomiales a Acinetobacter. Epidemiologic et difficultes therapeutiques. Presse Medicale, 18, 107-110.
24. Christensen, J. J., Korner, B. and Kjaergaard, H. (1989) Aerococcus-like organism - an unnoticed urinary tract pathogen. Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica, 97, 539-546.
25. Christensen, J. J., Vibitis, H., Ursing, J. and Korner, B. (1991) Aerococcus-like organism, a newly recognized potential urinary tract pathogen. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 29, 1049-1053.
26. Buiting, A., Sabbe, L., van Kasteren, M. et al. (1995) Aerococcus urinae urinary tract infections in The Netherlands. Abstracts of 35th ICAAC, K65.
27. Finegold, S. M. (1976) Anaerobic Bacteria in Human Disease, Academic Press, New York, pp. 314-349.
28. Scope Monograph on Anaerobic Infections, 3rd edn, Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI, p. 46.
29. (1974) Significance of anaerobic bacteria isolated from the urinary tract. 1. Clinical studies. Journal of Urology, 112, 257-260.
30. Stella, G. J. (1980) Peptococcal urinary tract infection with bacteremia: a case report. Journal of Urology, 124, 158-159.
31. Headington, J. T. and Beyerlein, B. (1966) Anaerobic bacteria in routine urine culture. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 19, 573-576.
32. Rosenstein, I. J., Ludlam, H., Hamilton-Miller, J. M. T. and Brumfitt, W. (1982) Anaerobic periurethral flora of healthy women and women susceptible to urinary tract infection. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 15, 565-568.
33. Jacobson, S. H. and Bjorklind, A. (1989) Symptomatic bacteriuria caused by Branhamella catarrhalis. Journal of Infection, 18, 192-193.
34. Pascual, A., Martinez-Martinez, L., Garcia-Gestosos, M. L. and Romero, J. (1994) Urinary tract infections caused by quinolone-resistant Campylobacter coli. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 13, 690-691.
35. Stamm, W. E., Wagner, K. R, Amsel, R. et al. (1980) Causes of the acute urethral syndrome in women. New England Journal of Medicine, 303, 409-415.
36. Feldman, R. G., Johnson, A. L., Schober, P. C. et al. (1986) Aetiology of urinary symptoms in sexually active women. Genitourinary Medicine, 62, 333-341.
37. Montgomery, J. Z. (1978) Cell-wall deficient bacteria in the urinary tract, in Infections of the Urinary Tract, (eds E. H. Kass and W. Brumfitt), Chicago University Press, Chicago, IL, pp. 257-260.
38. (1993) Cell-wall deficient bacteria as a cause of idiopathic hematuria. Journal of Urology, 150, 483-485.
39. (1995) Acute pyelonephritis caused by Mycoplasma bominis. Pathology, 27, 61-63.
40. (1986) Ureaplasma urealyticum serotypes in urinary tract disease. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 23, 149-154.
41. (1984) Ureaplasma urealyticum and upper tract urinary stones. British Journal of Urology, 56, 244-249.
42. Finegold, S. M., Sutter, V. L. and Mathison, G. E. (1983) Normal indigenous flora, in Human Intestinal Microflora in Health and Disease, (ed. D. J. Hentges), Academic Press, London, pp. 3-31.
43. Lipsky, B. A., Hook, E. W., Smith, A. A. and Plorde, J. J. (1980) Citrobacter infections in humans: experience at the Seattle Veterans Administration Medical Center and a review of the literature. Reviews of Infectious Diseases, 2, 746-760.
44. Fields, B. N., Uwaydah, M. M., Kunz, U. and Swartz, M. N. (1967) The so-called 'paracolon' bacteria: a bacteriologic and clinical reappraisal. American Journal of Medicine, 42, 89-106.
45. Hodges, G. R., Degener, C. E. and Barnes, W. G. (1978) Clinical significance of Citrobacter isolates. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 70, 37-40.
46. Holmes, B., King, A., Phillips, I. and Lepage, S. (1974) Sensitivity of Citrobacter freundii and Citrobacter koseri to cephalosporins and penicillins. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 27, 729-733.
47. Bailey, R. R. and Harris, S. (1994) Aerotolerant coryneforms as urinary tract pathogens. New Zealand Medical Journal, 107, 179.
48. Young, V. M., Meyers, W. F, Moody, M. R. and Schimpff, S. C. (1981) The emergence of coryneform bacteria as a cause of nosocomial infections in compromised hosts. American Journal of Medicine, 70, 646-650.
49. Aguado, J. M., Ponte, C. and Soriano, F. (1987) Bacteriuria with a multiply-resistant species of Corynebacterium (Corynebacterium group D2): an unnoticed cause of urinary tract infection. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 156, 144-150.
50. Rines, M. P. (1979) The urinary system, in Bovine Medicine and Surgery, (eds W. J. Gibbons, E. J. Cotcott and J. H. Smither), American Veterinary Publications, Wheaton, IL, pp. 631-640.
51. Digenis, G, Dombros, N., Devlin, R. et al. (1992) Struvite stone formation by Corynebacterium group Fl: a case report. Journal of Urology, 147, 169-170.
52. (1982) Enterobacter cloacae: bacteremia, epidemiology and antibiotic resistance. Reviews of Infectious Diseases, 4, 13-28.
53. (1967) The Klebsiella-Enterobacter (Aerobacter)-Serratia group. A clinical and bacteriological evaluation. Medicine, 46, 323-340.
54. Fiedelman, W. (1975) Carbenicillin therapy of urinary infections due to difficult pathogens. II. Enterobacter. Current Therapeutic Research, 18(Suppl.), 241-248.
55. (1974) Bakteriologische Untersuchengen bei ambulanten Patienten mit aukten Harnwegsinfektionen: Resistenzspeck-trum. Infection, 4, 11-15.
56. (1973) Ambulatory treatment of chronic urinary tract infections in elderly males: a comparative study of three oral antibiotics. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 127(Suppl.), 5 154-156.
57. (1987) Patients' endogenous flora as a source of 'nosocomial' Enterobacter in cardiac surgery. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 156, 363-368.
58. (1980) The role of periurethral colonization in the aetiology of recurrent urinary infection in women. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 87, 1145-1151.
59. (1987) High level aminoglycoside-resistant enterococci: colonization of nursing home and acute care hospital patients. Archives of Internal Medicine, 147, 1591 -1594.
60. (1987) Nosocomial infection by gentamicin-resistant Streptococcus faecalis: an epidemiological study. Annals of Internal Medicine, 106, 687-691.
61. Morrison, A. J. and Wenzel, R. P. (1986) Nosocomial urinary tract infections due to Enterococcus. Archives of Internal Medicine, 146, 1549-1551.
62. Lemoine, L. and Hunter, P. R. (1987) Enterococcal urinary tract infections in a teaching hospital. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 6, 574-575.
63. Felmingham, D., Wilson, A. P. R., Quintana, A. L. and Griineberg, R. N. (1992) Enterococcus species in urinary tract infection. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 15, 295-301.
64. (1987) Spectrum of bacterial pathogens in uncomplicated and complicated urinary tract infections. European Urology, 13(Suppl. 1), 9-12.
65. (1978) Association between Streptococcus faecalis urinary infections and graft rejection in kidney transplantation. Lancet, ii, 1167-1168.
66. (1987) Plasmid-mediated beta-lactamase in Enterococcus faecalis, in Streptococcal Genetics, (eds J. J. Ferretti and R. Curtiss), American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC, pp. 83-86.
67. (1988) Trimethoprim resistance in enterococci: microbiological and biochemical aspects. Microbios, 56, 45-55.
68. (1986) Enterococci and antifolate antibiotics. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 5, 391-394.
69. (1987) The enterococcus: 'putting the bug in our ears'. Annals of Internal Medicine, 106, 757-761.
70. (1988) Resistance patterns of important Gram-positive pathogens. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 21(Suppl. C), 41-47.
71. (1989) Antibiotic treatment of enterococcal infection. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 33, 2164.
72. Fiedelman, W. (1975) Carbenicillin therapy of urinary infections due to difficult uropathogens III. Enterococcus. Current Therapeutic Research, 18(Suppl.), 249-256.
73. (1986) Significance of Gardnerella vaginalis in urine cultures. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 86, 324-329.
74. (1968) Suprapubic aspiration of urine in pregnancy, in Urinary Tract Infection, (ed. F. O'Grady and W. Brumfitt), Oxford University Press, London, pp. 141-146.
75. (1981) Anaerobic and other fastidious micro-organisms in asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 144, 114-122.
76. Fairley, K. F. and Birch, D. F. (1983) Unconventional bacteria in urinary tract disease: Gardnerella vaginalis. Kidney International, 23, 862-865.
77. Lam, M. H., Birch, D. F. and Fairley, K. F. (1988) Prevalence of Gardnerella vaginalis in the urinary tract. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 26, 1130-1133.
78. Sturm, A. W. (1989) Gardnerella vaginalis in infections of the urinary tract. Journal of Infection, 18, 45-49.
79. Smith, S. M., Ogbara, T. and Eng, R. H. K. (1992) Involvement of Gardnerella vaginalis in urinary tract infections in men. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 30, 1575-1577.
80. Hemophilus influenzae as a cause of urinary tract infections in men. Archives of Internal Medicine, 144,1623-1627.
81. (1988) Urinary tract infection caused by Haemophilus influenzae. Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology, 22, 75-77.
82. (1990) Haemophilus influenzae and H. parainfluenzae as urinary pathogens. Journal of Infection, 20, 143-145.
83. Golledge, C. L. (1991) Urinary tract infection caused by Haemophilus parainfluenzae. Journal of Infection, 22, 98.
84. (1992) Urinary tract infections in patients with diabetes mellitus. Journal of Infection, 24, 169-174.
85. (1978) A hospital epidemic caused by a gentamicin-resistant Klebsiella aerogenes. Journal of Hygiene, 80, 115-123.
86. (1976) Epidemics of nosocomial urinary tract infection caused by multiply resistant Gram-negative bacilli, epidemiology and control. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 133, 363-366.
87. (1970) Control of infection due to Klebsiella aerogenes in a neurosurgical unit by withdrawal of all antibiotics. Lancet, ii, 1213-1215.
88. Watanakunakorn, C. and Jura, J. Klebsiella bacteremia: a review of 196 cases during a decade (1980-1989). Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 23, 399-405.
89. Lee, K. H., Hui, K. P., Tan, W. C. and Lim, T. K. (1994) Klebsiella bacteraemia: a report of 101 cases from National University Hospital, Singapore. Journal of Hospital Infection, 27, 299-305.
90. Stamm, W. E., Martin, S. M. and Bennett, J. V. (1977) Epidemiology of nosocomial infections due to Gram-negative bacilli: aspects relevant to development and use of vaccines. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 136(Suppl.), S151-S160.
91. Du Bois, S. K., Marriott, M. S. and Amyes, S. G. B. (1995) TEM- and SHV-derived extended-spectrum fj-lactamases: relationship between selection, structure and function. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 35, 7-22.
92. Tarkkanen, A.-M., Allen, B. L., Williams, P. H. et al. (1992) Fimbriation, capsulation and iron-scavenging systems of Klebsiella strains associated with human urinary tract infection. Infection and Immunity, 60, 1187-1192.
93. Camprubi, S., Merino, S., Benedi, V.-J. and Tomas, J. M. (1993) The role of O-antigen lipopolysaccharide and capsule on an experimental Klebsiella pneumoniae infection of the rat urinary tract. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 111, 9-14.
94. Maskell, R., Pead, L. and Allen, J. (1979) The puzzle of the 'urethral syndrome': a possible answer? Lancet, i, 1058-1059.
95. Hamilton-Miller, J. M. T, Brumfitt, W. and Smith, G. W. (1986) Are fastidious organisms an important cause of dysuria and frequency? The case against, in Microbial Diseases in Nephrology, (ed. A. W. Asscher and W. Brumfitt), John Wiley, Chichester, pp. 19-30.
96. Cooper, J., Raeburn, A., Brumfitt, W. and Hamilton-Miller, J. M. T. (1990) Single dose and conventional treatment for acute bacterial and nonbacterial dysuria and frequency in General Practice. Infection, 18, 65-69.
97. Stamm, W. E., Running, K., McKevitt, M. et al. (1981) Treatment of the acute urethral syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine, 304, 956-958.
98. Thomas, E., Hillman, B. J. and Stanisic, T. (1980) Urinary tract infection with atypical mycobacteria. Journal of Urology, 124, 748-750.
99. Oren, B., Raz, R. and Hass, H. (1990) Urinary Mycobacterium fortuitum infection. Infection, 18, 105-106.
100. Hochman, I., Siegman-Igra, Y., Goor, Y. and Cabili, S. (1992) A case of prolonged urinary tract infection caused by Mycobacterium fortuitum. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 11, 725-727.
101. Klotz, S. A. and Penn, R. L. (1987) Acid-fast staining of urine and gastric contents is an excellent indicator of mycobacterial disease. American Reviews of Respiratory Diseases, 136, 1197-1198.
102. Komorowski, R. A. and Farmer, S. G. (1974) Pasteurella urinary tract infections. Journal of Urology, 111, 817-818.
103. Mann, B. A. and Quenzer, R. W. (1987) Pasteurella multocida urinary tract infection. Western Journal of Medicine, 147, 200-201.
104. Hamilton-Miller, J. M. T. and Shah, S. (1996) Anomalous but helpful findings from the BBL Crystal ID kit with Haemophilus spp. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 23, 47-48.
105. Senior, B. W. (1983) Proteus morganii is less frequently associated with urinary infections than Proteus mirabilis - an explanation. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 16, 317-322.
106. Peerbooms, P. G. H., Verweij, A. M. J. J. and MacLaren, D. M. Uropathogenic properties of Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 19 55-60.
107. Senior, B. W., Loomes, L. M. and Kerr, M. A. (1991) The production and activity in vivo of Proteus mirabilis IgA protease in infections of the urinary tract. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 35, 203-207.
108. Senior, B. W. (1979) The special affinity of particular types of Proteus mirabilis for the urinary tract. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 12, 1-8.
109. Krajewska-Pietrasik, D., Rozalski, A., Bartodziejska, B. et al. (1991) Properties of a deep Proteus R mutant isolated from clinical material. Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica, 90, 499-506.
110. Madsen, P. O. and Graversen, P. H. (1986) Antimicrobial prophylaxis in transurethral surgery. Infection, 14, 201-202.
111. Watanakunakorn, C. and Perni, S. C. (1994) Proteus mirabilis bacteremia: a review of 176 cases during 1980-1992. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 26, 361-367.
112. Chow, A. W., Taylor, P. R., Yoshikawa, T. T. and Guze, L. B. (1979) A nosocomial outbreak of infections due to a multiple resistant Proteus mirabilis: role of intestinal colonization as a major reservoir. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 139, 621-627.
113. De Louvois J. (1969) Serotyping and Dienes reaction in Proteus mirabilis from hospital infections. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 22, 263-268.
114. France, D. R. and Markham, N. P. (1968) Epidemiological aspects of Proteus infections with particular reference to phage typing. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 21, 97-102.
115. Warren, J. W. (1986) Providencia stuartii: a common cause of antibiotic-resistant bacteriuria in patients with long-term indwelling catheters. Reviews of Infectious Diseases, 8, 61-67.
116. Tenny, J. H. and Warren, J. W. (1988) Bacteriuria in women with long-term catheters: paired comparison of indwelling and replacement catheters. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 157, 199-202.
117. Muder, R., Brennen, C, Wagener, M. and Goetz. A. (1992) Bacteremia in a long-term care facility: a five year prospective study of 163 consecutive episodes. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 14, 647-654.
118. Rudman, D., Hontanosas, A., Cohen, Z. and Mattson, D. E. (1988) Clinical correlates of bacteremia in a Veterans Administration extended care facility. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 36, 726-732.
119. Fierer, J. and Ekstrom, M. (1981) An outbreak of Providencia stuartii urinary tract infections. Journal of the American Medical Association, 245, 1553-1555.
120. Hawkey, P. M. (1984) Providencia stuartii, a review of a multiple resistant bacterium. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 13, 209-226.
121. Hamilton-Miller, J. M. T, Brumfitt, W. and Reynolds, A. V. (1974) Apparent emergence of gentamicin-resistant Providencia stuartii during therapy with gentamicin. Lancet, i, 527.
122. (1977) Proteus rettgeri infections: a review. Journal of Urology, 117, 115-117.
123. (1976) Multi-drug resistant Proteus rettgeri: an emerging problem. Annals of Internal Medicine, 85, 161-164.
124. Gaynes, R. P., Weinstein, R. A., Chamberlin, W. and Kabins, S. A. (1985) Antibiotic-resistant flora in nursing home patients admitted to hospital. Archives of Internal Medicine, 145, 1804-1807.
125. Senior, B. W and Leslie, D. L. (1986) Rare occurrence of Proteus vulgaris in faeces: a reason for its rare association with urinary tract infections. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 21, 139-144.
126. Puppo, P., Geminale, E, Bottino, P. et al. (1987) Propionohydroxamic acid in the management of struvite urinary stones. Contributions to Nephrology, 58, 201-206.
127. Rosenstein, L, Osborne, R. S., Hopewell, J. P. et al. (1984) Bacteriological and crystallographic analysis of urinary calculi: aid to patient management. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 77, 478-482.
128. Duncan, I. B. R. (1975) Epidemiology and chemotherapy of opportunistic infections due to Pseudomonas and Klebsiella. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 11, 277-282.
129. Rylander, M., Norrby, S. R. and Svard, R. (1987) Norfloxacin vs co-trimoxazole for treatment of urinary tract infections in adults: microbiological results of a coordinated multicentre study. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 19, 551-557.
130. Strand, C. L., Bryant, J. K., Morgan, J. W. et al. (1982) Nosocomial Pseudomonas aeruginosa urinary tract infections. Journal of the American Medical Association, 248, 1615-1618.
131. Marrie, T. J., Major, H., Gurwith, M. et al. (1978) Prolonged outbreak of nosocomial urinary tract infection with a single strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 119, 593-598.
132. Visca, P., Chiarini, F., Vetriani, C. et al. (1991) Epidemiological typing of uropathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains from hospitalized patients. Journal of Hospital Infection, 19, 153-165.
133. Visca, P., Chiarini, F., Mansi, A. et al. (1992) Virulence determinants in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains from urinary tract infections. Epidemiology and Infection, 108, 323-336.
134. Puzova, H., Siegfried, L., Kmetova, M. et al. (1994) Characteristics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from urinary tract infections. Folia Microbiologica, 39, 337-341.
135. Scott, M. B. and Cosgrove, M. D. (1977) Salmonella infection and the genitourinary system. Journal of Urology, 118, 64-68.
136. Christensen, J. J. and Korner, B. (1987) Salmonella infections of the urinary tract. Danish Medical Bulletin, 34, 265-267.
137. Andreu-Domingo, A., Ojeda-Perez, F. and Coira-Nieto, A. (1987) Urinary tract infection by Salmonella enteritidis. Journal of Urology, 138, 1260.
138. Madduri, S. D., Maurello, D. A., Smith, L. G. and Seebode, J. J. (1976) Serratia marcescens and the urologist. Journal of Urology, 116, 613-615.
139. Kreiger, J. N., Levy-Zombek, E., Scheidt, A. and Drusin, L. M. (1980) A nosocomial epidemic of antibiotic-resistant Serratia marcescens urinary tract infections. Journal of Urology, 124, 613-615.
140. Rukala, W. A., Kennedy, V. A., Loflin, H. B. and Sabubbi, F. A. (1981) Serratia marcescens nosocomial infections of the urinary tract associated with urine measuring containers and urometers. American Journal of Medicine, 70, 659-663.
141. Kreiger, J. N., Kaiser, D. L. and Wenzel. R. P. (1983) Urinary tract etiology of bloodstream infections in hospitalized patients. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 148, 57-62.
142. Pasepasian, C. J., Enna-Kifer, S. and Garrison, B. (1995) Symptomatic Shigella sonnei urinary tract infection. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 33, 2222-2223.
143. Torres Pereira, A. (1962) Coagulase-negative strains of staphylococcus possessing antigen 51 as agents of urinary infection. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 15, 252-253.
144. Pead, L. and Maskell, R. (1977) 'Micrococci' and urinary infection. Lancet, ii, 565.
145. Hedman, P. and Ringertz, O. (1991) Urinary tract infections caused by Staphylococcus saprophyticus. A matched case control study. Journal of Infection, 23, 145-153.
146. Kloos, W. E. and Musselwhite, M. S. (1975) Distribution and persistence of Staphylococcus and Micrococcus species and other aerobic bacteria on human skin. Applied Microbiology, 30, 381-395.
147. Hovelius, B., Mardh, P. A. and Bygren, P. (1979) Urinary tract infections caused by Staphylococcus saprophyticus recurrence and complications. Journal of Urology, 122, 645-647.
148. Maskell, R., Pead, L. and Morris, J. (1985) Staphylococcus saprophyticus as a urinary pathogen: a six year prospective study. British Medical Journal, 291, 1157-1159.
149. Hedman, P., Ringertz, O., Lindstrom, M. and Olsson, K. (1993) The origin of Staphylococcus saprophyticus from cattle and pigs. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 25, 57-60.
150. Beuth, J., Ho, H. L., Tunggal, L. and Pulverer, G. (1992) Harnwegsinfek-tionen durch Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift, 117, 687-691.
151. Gatermann, S. and Meyer, H. G. W. (1994) Staphylococcus saprophyticus hemagglutinin binds fibronectin. Infection and Immunity, 62,4556-4563.
152. Latham, R. H., Zelenik, D., Minshawe, B. H. et al. (1984) Staphylococcus saprophyticus p-lactamase production and disk diffusion susceptibility testing for three f3-lactam antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 26, 670-672.
153. Mitchell, R. G. (1968) Classification of Staphylococcus albus strains isolated from the urinary tract. Journal of Clinical Pathology,1\, 93-96.
154. Leighton, P. M. and Little, J. A. Identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from urinary tract infections. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 85, 92-95.
155. Ozturken, H., Kocabeyoglu, O., Yergok, E. et al. (1994) Distribution of coagulase-negative staphylococci, including the newly described species Staphylococcus schleiferi, in nosocomial and community acquired urinary tract infections. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 13, 1076-1079.
156. Arsepi, M. and Renneberg, J. (1984) The clinical significance of Staphylococcus aureus bacteriuria. Journal of Urology, 132, 697-700.
157. Morrison, A. J., Hoffman, K. K. and Wenzel, R. P. (1986) Associated mortality and clinical characteristics of Pseudomonas maltophilia in a University hospital. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 24, 52-55.
158. Wishart, M. M. and Riley, T. V. (1976) Infection with Pseudomonas maltophilia: hospital outbreak due to contaminated disinfectant. Medical Journal of Australia, ii, 710-712.
159. Moody, M. R. and Young, V. M. (1975) In vitro susceptibility of Pseudomonas cepacia and Pseudomonas maltophilia to trimethoprim and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 7, 836-839.
160. Collins, L. E., Clarke, R. W. and Maskell, R. (1986) Streptococci as urinary pathogens. Lancet, ii, 479-480.
161. Mhalu, F. S. Streptococcus agalactiae in urinary tract infections. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 53, 216-218.
162. Persson, K. M. S., Grabe, M., Kristiansen, P. and Forsgren, A. (1988) Significance of group B streptococci in urine cultures from males and nonpregnant females. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 20, 47-53.
163. Munoz, P., Coque, T, Creixems, M. R. et al. {1992) Group B streptococcus: a cause of urinary tract infection in non-pregnant adults. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 14, 492-496.
164. Mead, P. J. and Harris, R. E. The incidence of group B [3-hemolytic streptococci in antepartum urinary tract infections. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 51, 412-414.
165. Wood, E. G. and Dillon, H. C. A prospective study of group B streptococci bacteriuria in pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 140, 515-520.
166. Michigan, S. (1976) Genitourinary fungal infections. Journal of Urology, 116,390-397.
167. Hamilton-Miller, J. M. T. (1972) A comparative study of amphotericin B, clotrimazole and 5-fluorocytosine against clinically isolated yeasts. Sabouraudia, 10, 276-283.
168. Frye, K. R., Donovan, J. M. and Drach, G. W. (1988) Torulopsis glabrata urinary infection: a review. Journal of Urology, 139, 1245-1249.
169. Ang, B. S. P., Telenti, A., King, B., Steckelberg, J. M. and Wilson, W. R. (1993) Candidemia from a urinary tract source: microbiological aspects and clinical significance. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 17, 662-666.
170. Morton, K. M., Robertson, A. J. and Mclntyre, J. (1988) Urinary bladder fungus ball. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 41, 1243-1244.
171. Fisher, J. F, Chew, W. H., Shadomy, S. et al. (1982) Urinary tract infections due to Candida albicans. Reviews of Infectious Diseases, 4, 1107-1118.
172. Hall, W. J. (1980) Study of antibody-coated fungi in patients with funguria and suspected disseminated fungal infections or primary fungal pyelonephritis. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 73, 567-569.
173. Chun, C. S. Y. and Turner, R. B. (1991) The outcome of candiduria in pediatric patients. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 14, 119-123.
174. Guglielmo, B. J., Stoller, M. L. and Jacobs, R. A. (1994) Management of candiduria. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 4, 135-139.
175. Hsu, C. C. S. and Uklega, B. (1990) Clearance of Candida colonizing the urinary bladder by a two day amphotericin B irrigation. Infection, 18, 280-282.
176. Fong, I. W, Cheng, P. S. and Hinton, N. A. (1991) Fungicidal effect of amphotericin B in urine: in vitro study to assess feasibility of bladder washout for localization of site of candiduria. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 35, 1856-1859.
177. Hamilton-Miller, J. M. T. (1993) Continuing the search for bacterial urovirulence factors. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie, 279, 147-153.
178. Johnson, J. R. (1991) Virulence factors in Escherichia coli urinary tract infection. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 4, 80-128.

Virulence Factors Of Proteus

1. Braude, A. I. (1970) Production of bladder stones by L-forms. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 174, 896-898.
2. Wenner, J. J. and Rettger, L. F. (1919) A systematic study of the Proteus group of bacteria. Journal of Bacteriology, 4, 331-353.
3. Brenner, D. J., Farmer, J. J., Fanning, G. R. et al. (1978) Deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness in species Proteus and Providencia. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 28, 269-282.
4. Kotelko, K. (1986) Proteus mirabilis: taxonomic position, peculiarities of growth, components of the cell envelope. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, 129, 181-215.
5. Hickman, F. W., Steiger-Walt, A. G., Farmer, J. J. and Brenner, D. J. (1982) Identification of Proteus penneri nov. sp., formerly known as Proteus vulgaris indole negative or as Proteus vulgaris biogroup 1. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 15, 1097-1102.
6. Rustigian, R. and Stuart, C. A. (1945) The biochemical and serological relationships of organisms of the genus Proteus. Journal of Bacteriology, 49, 419-436.
7. Krikler, M. S. (1953) The serology of Proteus vulgaris. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of London.
8. Peerbooms, P. G. H., Verweij, A. M. J. J. and MacLaren, D. M. (1985) Uropathogenic properties of Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 19, 55-60.
9. Haenel, H. (1961) Some rules in the ecology of the intestinal microflora of man. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 24, 242-251.
10. Penner, J. L. (1981) The tribe Proteae, in The Prokaryotes, (eds M. P. Starr, H. Stolp, H. G. Truper et al.), Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 1204-1224.
11. Senior, B. W. (1979) The special affinity of particular types of Proteus mirabilis for the urinary tract. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 12, 1-8.
12. Taylor, J. F. (1928) B. proteus infections. Journal of Pathology and Microbiology, 31, 897-915.
13. McAllister, T. A. (1974) Urinary tract infections in Scottish rural general practice: a postal study using dip-slides. Journal of International Medical Research, 2, 400-408.
14. Adler, J. L., Burke, J. P., Martin, D. F. and Finland, M. (1971) Proteus infections in a general hospital. 1. Biochemical characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility of the organisms. Annals of Internal Medicine, 75, 517-530.
15. Watanakunakorn, C. and Perni, S. C. (1994) Proteus mirabilis bacteremia: a review of 176 cases during 1980-1992. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 26, 361-367.
16. Bennett, J. V. (1979) Incidence and nature of endemic and epidemic nosocomial infections, in Hospital Infections, (eds J. V. Bennett and Brachman), Little, Brown & Co., Boston, MA, pp. 233-238.
17. MacLaren, D. M. and Peerbooms, P. G. H. (1986) Urinary infections by urea-splitting micro-organisms, in Microbial Diseases in Nephrology, (ed. A. W Asscher and W. Brumfitt), John Wiley, Chichester, pp. 186-195.
18. Asscher, A. W. (1980) Nosocomial and surgical infections, in The Challenge of Urinary Tract Infections, Academic Press, London, pp. 146-152.
19. Ellner, P. D., Fink, D. J., Neu, H. C. and Parry, M. F. (1987) Epidemiologic factors affecting antimicrobial resistance of common bacterial isolates. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 25, 1668-1674.
20. Moxon, E. R. and Kroll, J. S. (1990) The role of bacterial polysaccharide capsules as virulence factors. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, 150, 67-84.
21. Silverblatt, F. J. and Ofek, I. (1975) Effects of pili on susceptibility of Proteus mirabilis to phagocytosis and on adherence to bladder cells, in Infections of the Urinary Tract, (eds E. H. Kass and W. Brumfitt), Chicago University Press, Chicago, IL, pp. 49-59.
22. Williams, F. D. and Schwarzhoff, R. H. (1978) Nature of the swarming phenomenon in Proteus. Annual Review of Microbiology, 32, 101-122.
23. Perch, B. (1948) On the serology of the Proteus group. Acta Pathologica, 25, 703-714.
24. Dumanski, A. J., Hedelin, H., Edin-Liljegren, A. et al. (1994) Unique ability of the Proteus mirabilis capsule to enhance mineral growth in infectious urinary calculi. Infection and Immunity, 62, 2998-3003.
25. Schellekens, J. F. P., Kalter, E. S., Vreede, R. W. and Verhoef, J. (1984) Host-parasite interaction in serious infections due to gram-negative bacteria. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 50, 701-710.
26. Gmeiner, J. (1975) The isolation of two different lipopolysaccharide fractions from various Proteus mirabilis strains. European Journal of Biochemistry, 58, 621-626.
27. Goldman, R. C, White, D., Orskov, F. et al. (1982) A surface polysaccharide of Escherichia coli contains O-antigen and inhibits agglutination of cells by O-antiserum. Journal of Bacteriology, 151, 1210-1221.
28. Krajewska-Pietrasik, D., Larsson, P., Zych, K. et al. (1991) Characteristics of spontaneously agglutinating Proteus mirabilis strains from bacteriuric patients. Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica, 99, 956-960
29. Dootson, P. H., MacLaren, D. M. and Titcombe, D. H. M. (1973) The distribution of urinary O-groups of Escherichia coli in urinary infections and in the normal faecal flora, in Urinary Tract Infection, (ed. W. Brumfitt and A. W. Asscher), Oxford University Press, London, pp. 139-145.
30. Larsson, P. O. (1980) Antigens of Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris strains isolated from patients with bacteremia. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 12, 490-492.
31. Senior, B. W. (1977) Typing of Proteus strains by proticine production and sensitivity. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 10, 7-17.
32. Capodici, C, Chen, S., Sidorczyk, Z. et al. (1994) Effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) chain length on interactions of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein and its bioactive 23-kilodalton NH2-fragment with isolated LPS and intact Proteus mirabilis and Escherichia coli. Infection and Immunity, 62, 259-265.
33. Boyarski, S. and Labay, P. (1969) Ureteral motility. Annual Review of Medicine, 20, 383-394.
34. Fairley, K. E, Carson, N. E., Gutch, R. C. et al. (1971) Site of infection in acute urinary-tract infection in general practice. Lancet, ii, 615-618.
35. Adegbola, R. A., Old, D. C. and Senior, B. W. (1983) The adhesins and fimbriae of Proteus mirabilis strains associated with high and low affinity for the urinary tract. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 16, 427-431.
36. Silverblatt, F. J. (1974) Host-parasite interaction in the rat renal pelvis. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 140, 1696-1711.
37. Peerbooms, P. G. H., Verweij, A. M. J. J., Oe, P. L. and MacLaren, D. M. (1986) Urinary pathogenicity of Proteus mirabilis strains isolated from faeces or urine. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 52, 53-62.
38. Tolson, D. L., Barrigar, D. L., McLean, R. C. and Altman, E. (1995) Expression of a nonagglutinating fimbria by Proteus mirabilis. Infection and Immunity, 63, 1127-1129.
39. Waalwijk, C, MacLaren, D. M. and de Graaff. (1983) In vivo function of hemolysin in the nephrogenicity of Escherichia coli. Infection and Immunity, 42, 245-249.
40. Massad, G, Lockatell, C. V, Johnson, D. and Mobley, H. L. T. (1994) Proteus mirabilis fimbriae: construction of an isogenic pmfA mutant and analysis of virulence in a CBA mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection. Infection and Immunity, 62, 536-542.
41. Pazin, G. J. and Braude, A. I. (1974) Immobilizing antibodies in urine. II. Prevention of ascending infection. Investigative Urology, 12, 129-133.
42. Legnani-Fajardo, C, Zunino, P., Algorta, G. and Laborde, H. F. (1991) Antigenic and immunogenic activity of flagella and fimbriae preparations from uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 37, 325-328.
43. Harmon, R. C, Rutherford, R. L., Wu, H. M. and Collins, M. S. (1989) Monoclonal antibody-mediated protection and neutralization of mobility in experimental Proteus mirabilis infection. Infection and Immunity, 57, 1936-1941.
44. Falkingham, J. O. and Hoffman, P. S. (1984) Unique development characteristics of the swarm and short cells of Proteus vulgaris and Proteus mirabilis. Journal of Bacteriology, 158, 1037-1040.
45. MacLaren, D. M (1974) The influence of acetohydroxamic acid on experimental Proteus pyelonephritis. Investigative Urology, 12, 146-149.
46. Senior, B. W. (1983) Proteus morgani is less frequently associated with urinary tract infections than Proteus mirabilis - an explanation. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 16, 317-322.
47. Rosenstein, I. J., Hamilton-Miller, J. M. T and Brumfitt, W. (1983) The effect of acetohydroxamic acids on the induction of bacterial ureases. Investigative Urology, 18, 112-114.
48. Allison, C, Emody, L. and Coleman Hughes, C. (1994) The role of swarm cell differentiation and multicellular migration in the uropathogenicity of Proteus mirabilis. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 169, 1155-1158.
49. Braude, A. I. (1960) The role of bacterial urease in the pathogenesis of pyelonephritis (general discussion), in Biology of Pyelonephritis, (eds E. L. Quinn and E. H. Kass), Little, Brown & Co., Boston, MA, pp. 98-109.
50. MacLaren, D. M. (1968) The significance of urease in Proteus pyelonephritis: a bacteriological study. Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology, 96, 45-46.
51. Jones, B. D., Lockatell, C. V., Johnson, D. E. et al. (1990) Construction of a urease-negative mutant of Proteus mirabilis: analysis of virulence in a mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection. Infection and Immunity, 58, 1120-1123.
52. Aronson, M., Medalia, O. and Griffel, B. (1974) Prevention of ascending pyelonephritis in mice by urease inhibitors. Nephron, 12, 94-104.
53. Musher, D. M., Griffith, D. P., Yawn, D. and Rossen, R. D. (1975) Role of urease in pyelonephritis resulting from urinary tract infection with Proteus. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 131, 177-181.
54. Braude, A. I. and Siemienski, J. (1960) Role of bacterial urease in experimental pyelonephritis. Journal of Bacteriology, 80, 171-179.
55. MacLaren, D. M. (1969 ) The significance of urease in Proteus pyelonephritis: a histological and biochemical study. Journal of Pathology, 97, 43-49.
56. Beeson, P. B. and Rowley, D. (1959) The anti-complementary activity of kidney tissue. Its association with ammonia. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 110, 685-697.
57. Acquatela, H., Little, P. J., de Wardener, H. E. and Coleman, J. C. (1967) The effect of urine osmolality and pH on the bactericidal activity of plasma. Clinical Science, 33, 471-480.
58. Peerbooms, P. G. H., Verweij, A. M. J. J. and MacLaren, D. M. (1984) Vero cell invasiveness of Proteus mirabilis. Infection and Immunity, 43, 1068-1071.
59. Mobley, H. T. L. and Warren, J. W. (1987) Urease-positive bacteriuria and obstruction of long-term urinary catheters. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 25, 2216-2217.
60. Slors, J. F. M., Rasker, F. M. T. and Netelenbos, J. C. (1982) Proteus infectte van de urine. Zoek de steen. Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, 126, 225-229 (English summary).
61. Nielsen, I. (1956) Urolithiasis in mink: pathology, bacteriology and experimental production. Journal of Urology, 75, 602-614.
62. Cotran, R. S., Vivaldi, E., Zangwill, D. P. and Kass, E. H. (1963) Retrograde Proteus pyelonephritis in rats: bacteriologic, pathologic and fluorescent-antibody studies. American Journal of Pathology, 43, 1-31.
63. McLean, R. J. C, Nickel, J. C, Noakes, V. C. and Costerton, J. W. (1985) An in vitro ultrastructural study of infectious stone genesis. Infection and Immunity, 49, 805-811.
64. Grenabo, L., Hedelin, H., Hugosson, J. and Petersson, S. (1988) Adherence of urease-induced crystals to rat bladder epithelium following acute infection with different uropathogenic micro-organisms. Journal of Urology, 140, 428-430.
65. Takeuchi, H., Okada, Y, Yoshida, O. et al. (1989) Urinary tract infection associated with urinary calculi. 1. The significance of urinary tract infection in the urinary calculi. Acta Urologica Japonica, 35, 749-754 (English summary).
66. Griffith, D. P., Musher, D. M. and Itin, C. (1976) Urease - the primary cause of infection-induced urinary stones. Investigative Urology, 13, 346-350.
67. Rosenstein, I., Hamilton-Miller, J. M. T. and Brumfitt, W. (1980) Infection stones and the role of bacterial urease. Journal of Infection, 2, 211-214.
68. Peerbooms, P. G. H., Verweij, A. M. J. J. and MacLaren, D. M. (1983) Investigation of the haemolytic activity of Proteus mirabilis. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 49, 1-11.
69. Senior, B. W. (1993) The production of HlyA toxin by Proteus penneri strains. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 39, 282-289.
70. Sanford, J. P., Hunter, B. W. and Souda, L. L. (1962) The role of immunity in the pathogenesis of experimental haematogenous pyelonephritis. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 115, 383-410.
71. Gorrill, R. H. (1965) The fate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Escherichia coli in the mouse kidney. Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology, 89, 81-88.
72. Araki, T. (1977) Cell-mediated immunity in pyelonephritis; passive transfer of adoptive immunity to retrograde Proteus mirabilis pyelonephritis in the rat. Japanese Journal of Urology, 68, 771-779.
73. Coles, G. A., Chick, S., Hopkins, M. et al. (1974) The role of the T-cell in experimental pyelonephritis. Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 16, 629-636.
74. Shand, G. H., Anvar, H., Kaduruganuwa, J. et al. (1987) In vivo evidence that bacteria in urinary tract infections grow under iron-restricted conditions. Infection and Immunity, 48, 34-48.
75. Williams, P. H. and Warner, P. J. (1980) Col V plasmid-mediated, colicin V-independent iron uptake system of invasive strains of Escherichia coli. Infection and Immunity, 29, 411-416.
76. Senior, B. W. (1983) The purification, structure and synthesis of Proticine 3. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 16, 323-331.
77. Porter, J. R. and Meyers, F. P. (1945) Amino-acid interrelationships in the nutrition of Proteus morganii. Archives of Biochemistry, 8, 169-176.
78. MacLaren, D. M. (1970) The influence of urea on the growth of Proteus mirabilis. Guy's Hospital Reports, 119, 133-143.
79. McLean, R. J. C. and Nickel, J. C. (1991) Bacterial colonization behaviour: a new virulence strategy in urinary infections? Medical Hypotheses, 36, 269-272.
80. Senior, B. W, Albrechtsen, M. and Kerr, M. A. (1987) Proteus mirabilis strains of diverse types have IgA protease activity. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 24, 175-180.
81. Milazzo, F. H. and Delisle, G. J. (1984) Immunoglobulin A proteases in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from human urinary tract infections. Infection and Immunity, 43, 11-13.
82. Loomes, L. M., Senior, B. W. and Kerr, M. A. (1992) Proteinases of Proteus spp. Properties and detection in urine of infected patients. Infection and Immunity, 60, 2267-2273.
83. Gutman, L. T., Schaller, J. and Wedgwood, R. J. (1967) Bacterial L-forms in relapsing urinary-tract infection. Lancet, i, 464-466.
84. Montgomerie, J. Z., Kalmanson, G. M. and Guze, L. B. (1968), in Microbial Protoplasts, Spheroplasts and L-forms, (ed. L. B. Guze), Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.

Useful Articles

Recommended health screenings for women.
Dangers of stress: How it increases the risk of UTIs and many other conditions.
Latest health statistics: Female life expectancy.
Reproductive system disorders: See what else can go wrong with the reproductive organs.

Host Parasite Interaction In Urinary Tract Infections

1. Kunin, C. M. (1996) Urinary Tract Infections: Detection, Prevention and Management, 5th edn, Williams &c Williams, Baltimore, MD.
2. Winberg, J., Andersen, H., Bergstrom, T. et al. (1974) Epidemiology of symptomatic urinary tract infection in childhood. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica (Supplement), 252, 1-20.
3. Jodal, IL, Lindberg, U. and Lincoln, K. (1975) Level diagnosis of symptomatic urinary tract infections in childhood. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica, 64, 201-208.
4. Bettelheim, K. and Taylor, J. (1969) A study of Escherichia coli isolated from chronic urinary tract infection. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 2, 225-236.
5. Griineberg, R. (1969) Relationship of infecting urinary organisms to the faecal flora in patients with symptomatic urinary infections. Lancet, ii, 766-768.
6. Kauffmann, E (1943) Uber neue thermolabile Korperantigene der Coli-bakterien. Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica, 20, 21-44.
7. Mabeck, C. E., 0rskov, F. and 0rskov, I. (1971) Escherichia coli serotypes and renal involvement in urinary-tract infection. Lancet, i, 1312-1314.
8. Mabeck, C, 0rskov, E and 0rskov, I. (1971) Studies in urinary tract infections. Escherichia coli 0:H serotypes in recurrent infections. Acta Medica Scandinavica, 190, 279-282.
9. Shanin, R., Engberg, I., Hagberg, L. and Svanborg-Eden, C. (1987) Neutrophil recruitment and bacterial clearance correlated with LPS responsiveness in local Gram-negative infection. Journal of Immunology, 10,3475-3480.
10. Svanborg-Eden, C. and de Man, P. (1987) Bacterial virulence in urinary tract. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, 1, 731-750.
11. Johnson, J. (1991) Virulence factors in Escherichia coli urinary tract infection. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 4, 80-128.
12. Hedges, S., de Man, P., Linder, H. et al. (1990) Interleukin-6 is secreted by epithelial cells in response to Gram-negative bacterial challenge, in Advances in Mucosal Immunology, International Conference of Mucosal Immunity, (ed. T. Macdonald), S. Kluwer, London, pp. 144-148.
13. Agace, W, Hedges, S., Andersson, U. et al. (1993) Selective cytokine production by epithelial cells following exposure to Escherichia coli. Infection and Immunity, 61, 602-609.
14. Hedges, S., Agace, W and Svanborg, C. (1995) Epithelial cytokine responses and mucosal cytokine networks. Trends in Microbiology, 3, 266-270.
15. Connell, H., de Man, P., Jodal, U. et al. (1993) Lack of association between hemolysin and acute inflammation in human urinary tract infection. Microbial Pathology, 14, 463-472.
16. Johanson, I.-M., Plos, K., Marklund, B.-I. and Svanborg, C. (1993) Pap, papG and prsG DNA sequences in Escherichia coli from the fecal flora and the urinary tract. Microbial Pathology, 15, 121-129.
17. Hagberg, L., Hull, R., Hull, S. et al. (1983) Contribution of adhesion to bacterial persistence in the mouse urinary tract. Infection and Immunity, 40, 265-272.
18. Hacker, J., Schmidt, G., Hughes, C. et al. (1985) Cloning and characterization of genes involved in the production of mannose-resistant, neuraminidase-susceptible (X) fimbriae from a uropathogenic 06:K15:H31 Escherichia coli strain. Infection and Immunity, 47, 434-440.
19. Christmas, T. (1994) Lymphocyte populations in the bladder wall in normal bladder, bacterial cystitis and interstitial cystitis. British Journal of Urology, 73, 508-515.
20. Svanborg-Eden, C, Hanson, L., Jodal, U. et al. (1976) Variable adherence to normal urinary tract epithelial cells of Escherichia coli strains associated with various forms of urinary tract infection. Lancet, i, 490-492.
21. Svanborg-Eden, C, Eriksson, B., Hanson, L. A. et al. (1978) Adhesion to normal human uroepithelial cells of Escherichia coli of children with various forms of urinary tract infections. Journal of Pediatrics, 93, 398-403.
22. Kallenius, G., Svensson, S. B. and Hultberg, H. (1981) Occurrence of P-fimbriated E. coli in urinary tract infections. Lancet, ii, 1369-1372.
23. Vaisanen-Rhen, V, Elo, J., Vaisanen, E. et al. (1984) P-fimbriated clones among uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. Infection and Immunity, 43,149-155.
24. Marild, S., Wettergren, B., Hellstrom, B. et al. (1988) P-fimbriated clones among uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. Infection and Immunity, 43, 149-155.
25. Plos, K., Carter, T, Hull, S. et al. (1990) Frequency and organisation of pap homologous DNA in relation to clinical origin of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 161, 518-524.
26. Stenquist, K., Sandberg, T, Lidin-Janson, G. et al. (1987} Virulence factors of E. coli urinary isolates from pregnant women. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 156(6), 870-877.
27. Johnson, J. R., Roberts, P. L. and Stamm, W. E. (1987) P fimbriae and other virulence factors in Escherichia coli urosepsis: association with patients' characteristics. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 156, 225-229.
28. Duguid, J., Old, D. (1980) Adhesive properties of Enterobacteriaceae, in Bacterial Adherence. Receptors and Recognition, series B, vol. 6, (ed. E. H. Beachey), Chapman &c Hall, London, pp. 185-217.
29. Brinton, C. C. (1985) The structure, function, synthesis and genetic control of bacterial pili, and a molecular model for DNA and RNA transport in Gram-negative bacteria. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, 27, 1003-1054.
30. Svanborg-Eden, C. and Hansson, H. (1978) Escherichia coli pili as possible mediators of attachment to human urinary tract epithelial cells. Infection and Immunity, 21, 229-237.
31. Korhonen, T, Eden, S., Svanborg-Eden, C. (1980) Binding of purified Escherichia coli pili to human urinary tract epithelial cells. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 7, 237-241.
32. Svanborg-Eden, C, Korhonen, T K., Leffler, H. and Schoolnik, G. (1982) Aspects on structure and function of pili on uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Progress in Allergy, 33, 189-202.
33. Klemm, P. (1994) Bacterial Fimbriae, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
34. 0rskov, E, 0rskov, I., Jann, B., Jann, K. (1980) Tamm-Horsfall protein or uromucoid is the normal urinary slime that traps type 1 fimbriated Escherichia coli. Lancet, i, 8173.
35. Svanborg-Eden, C, Fasth, A., Hagberg, L. et al. (1981) Host interaction with Escherichia coli in the urinary tract, in Bacterial Vaccines, (eds J. Robbins, J. Hill and J. Sadoff), Theime-Stratton, New York, vol. 4, pp. 113-133.
36. Wold, A., Mestecky, J., Tomana, M. et al. (1990) Secretory immunoglobu-lin-A carries oligosaccharide receptors for Escherichia coli type 1 fimbrial lectin. Infection and Immunity, 58, 3073-3077.
37. Korhonen, T. K., Vaisanen-Rhen, V., Rhen, M. et al. (1984) Escherichia coli fimbriae recognize sialyl galactosides. Journal of Bacteriology, 159, 762-766.
38. Leffler, H. and Svanborg-Eden, C. (1980) Chemical identification of a glycosphingolipid receptor for Escherichia coli attaching to human urinary tract epithelial cells and agglutinating human erythrocytes. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 8, 127-134.
39. Kallenius, G., Mollby, R., Winberg, J. et al. (1980) The Pk antigen as a receptor for the hemaglutination of pyelonephritogenic Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 7, 297-302.
40. Lindstedt, R, Falk, P, Hull, R. et al. (1989) Binding specificities of wild-type and cloned Escherichia coli strains that recognize globo-A. Infection and Immunity, 57, 3389-3394.
41. Vaisanen, V., Korhonen, T, Jokinen, M. et al. (1982) Blood group M specific haemagglutination in pyelonephritogenic Escherichia coli. Lancet, i, 1192.
42. Leffler, H., Svanborg-Eden, C, Schoolnik, G. et al. (1977) Glyco-sphingolipids as receptors for bacterial adhesion. Host glycolipid diversity and other selected aspects, in Adherence of Organisms to the Gut Mucosa, (ed. E. D. Boedekker), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 177-187.
43. Leffler, H. and Svanborg-Eden, C. (1986) Glycolipids as receptors for Escherichia coli lectins or adhesins, in Microbial Lectins, (ed. Mirelman, D.), John Wiley, New York, pp. 84-96.
44. Hultgren, S., Lindberg, E, Magnusson, G. et al. (1989) The PapG adhesin of uropathogenic Escherichia coli contains separate regions for receptor binding and for the incorporation into the pilus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 86, 4357-4361.
45. Hull, S., Clegg, S., Svanborg-Eden, C. and Hull, R. (1985) Multiple form of genes in pyelonephritogenic Escherichia coli encoding adhesins binding globoseries, glycolipid receptors. Infection and Immunity, 21, 80-83.
46. Plos, K., Hull, S., Hull, R. et al. (1989) Distribution of the P-associated-pilus (pap) region among Escherichia coli isolates from natural sources: evidence for horizontal gene transfer. Infection and Immunity, 57, 1604-1611.
47. DeRee, J. M. and van den Bosch, J. F. (1987) Serological response to the P fimbriae of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in pyelonephritis. Infection and Immunity, 55, 2204-2207.
48. Lindberg, F, Lund, B., Johansson, L. and Normark, S. (1987) Localization of the receptor-binding protein adhesin at the tip of the bacterial pilus. Nature, 328, 84-87.
49. Moch, T, Hoschutzky, H., Hacker, J. et al. (1987) Isolation and characterization of the alpha-sialyl-p-2,3-galactosyl-specific adhesin from fimbriated Escherichia coli. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 84, 3462.
50. Lindberg, B., Lund, B. and Normark, S. (1986) Gene products specifying adhesion of uropathogenic Escherichia coli are minor components of pili. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 83, 1891-1895.
51. Lund, B., Lindberg, E, Marklund, B. and Normark, S. (1987) The papG protein is the a-D-galactopyranosyl-(l-4)-p-D-galactopyranose-binding adhesin of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 84, 5898-5902.
52. Leffler, H. and Svanborg-Eden, C. (1981) Glycolipid receptors for uropathogenic Escherichia coli on human erythrocytes and uroepithelial cells. Infection and Immunity, 34, 920-929.
53. Lund, B., Marklund, B.-L, Stromberg, N. et al. (1988) Uropathogenic Escherichia coli can express serologically identical pili of different receptor binding specificities. Molecular Microbiology, 2, 255-263.
54. Stromberg, N., Marklund, B.-L, Lund, B. et al. (1990) Host-specificity of uropathogenic Escherichia coli depends on differences in binding specificity to Galal-4Galp-containing isoreceptors. EMBO Journal, 9, 2001-2010.
55. Johanson, I.-M., Lindstedt, R. and Svanborg, C. (1992) The role of the pap and prs encoded adhesins in Escherichia coli adherence to human epithelial cells. Infection and Immunity, 60, 3416-3422.
56. Karr, J., Nowicki, B., Truong, L. et al. (1989) Purified P fimbriae from two cloned gene clusters of a single pyelonephritogenic strain adhere to unique structures in the human kidney. Infection and Immunity, 57, 3594-3600.
57. Lindstedt, R., Larson, G., Falk, P. et al. (1991) The receptor repertoire defines the host range for attaching Escherichia coli recognizing globo-A. Infection and Immunity, 59, 1086-1092.
58. Wold, A., Thorssen, M., Hull, S. and Svanborg-Eden, C. (1988) Attachment of Escherichia coli via mannose or Galal-4Galp containing receptors to human colonic epithelial cells. Infection and Immunity, 56, 2531-2537.
59. Wold, A., Caugant, D., Lidin-Janson, G. et al. (1992) Resident colonic Escherichia coli strains frequently display uropathogenic characteristics. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 165, 46-52.
60. O'Hanley, P., Lark, P., Falkow, S. and Schoolnik, G. (1985) Molecular basis of Escherichia coli colonization of the upper urinary tract in BALB/c mice. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 75, 347-360.
61. Roberts, J., Marklund, B.-L, liver, D. et al. (1994) The Gala(l-4)Gal(3-specific tip adhesin of Escherichia coli P-fimbriae is needed for pyelonephritis to occur in the normal urinary tract. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 91, 11889-11893.
62. de Man, P., Jodal, U., Lincoln, K. and Svanborg-Eden, C. (1988) Bacterial attachment and inflammation in the urinary tract. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 158, 29.
63. Anderson, P., Engberg, I., Lidin-Janson, G. et al. (1991) Persistence of Escherichia coli bacteriuria is not determined by bacterial adherence. Infection and Immunity, 59, 2915-2921.
64. De Man, P., Van Kooten, C, Aarden, L. et al. (1989) Interleukin-6 induced by Gram-negative bacterial infection at mucosal surfaces. Infection and Immunity, 57, 3383-3388.
65. Linder, H., Engberg, L, Hoschutzky, H. et al. (1991) Adhesion dependent activation of mucosal IL-6 production. Infection and Immunity, 59, 4357-4362.
66. Hedges, S., Svensson, M. and Svanborg, C. (1992) Interleukin-6 response of epithelial cell lines to bacterial stimulation in vitro. Infection and Immunity, 60, 1295-1301.
67. Svensson, M., Lindstedt, R., Radin, N. and Svanborg, C. (1994) Epithelial glycosphingolipid expression as a determinant of bacterial adherence and cytokine production. Infection and Immunity, 62, 4404-4410.
68. Hedlund, M., Svensson, M., Nilsson, A. et al. (1996) Role of the ceramide signalling pathway in cytokine responses to P fimbriated Escherichia coli. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 183, 1-8.
69. Hagberg, L., Jodal, U., Korhonen, T. et al. (1981) Adhesion, hemagglutination, and virulence of Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infections. Infection and Immunity, 31, 564-70.
70. Sandberg, T, Stenquist, K., Svanborg-Eden, C. and Lidin-Janson, G. (1983) Neonatal colonization with Escherichia coli and the ontogeny of the antibody response. Progress in Allergy, 33, 40-52.
71. De Man, P., Cedergren, B., Enerback, S. et al. (1987) Receptor-specific agglutination tests for the detection of bacteria that bind the globoseries of glycolipids. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 25, 401-406.
72. Stenquist, K., Dahlen-Nilsson, I., Lidin-Janson, G. etal. (1989) Bacteriuria in pregnancy: frequency and risk of acquisition. American Journal of Epidemiology, 129, 372-379.
73. Ulleryd, P., Lincoln, K., Scheutz, F. and Sandberg, T. (1994) Virulence characteristics of Escherichia coli in relation to host response in men with symptomatic urinary tract infection. Clinics in Infectious Diseases, 18, 579-584.
74. Plos, K., Connell, H., Jodal, U. et al. (1995) Intestinal carriage of P fimbriated Escherichia coli and the susceptibility to urinary tract infection in young children. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 171, 625-631.
75. Otto, G, Sandberg, T, Marklund, B.-I. etal. (1993) Virulence factors and pap genotype in Escherichia coli isolates from women with acute pyelonephritis, with or without bacteremia. Clinics in Infectious Diseases, 17, 448-456.
76. Hull, R, Hull, S. and Falkow, S. (1984) Frequency of gene sequences necessary for pyelonephritis-associated pili expression among isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from human extraintestinal infections. Infection and Immunity, 43, 1064-1067.
77. Ekback, C, Morner, S., Lund, B. and Normark, S. (1986) Correlation of genes in the pap gene cluster to expression of globoside-specific adhesin by uropathogenic Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 34, 355-360.
78. Arthur, M., Campanelli, C, Arbeit, R. et al. (1989) Structure and copy number of gene clusters related to the pap P-adhesin operon of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Infection and Immunity, 57, 314-321.
79. Marklund, B.-L, Tennent, J., Garcia, E. et al. (1992) Horizontal gene transfer of the Escherichia coli pap and prs operons as a mechanism for the development of tissue specific adhesive properties. Molecular Microbiology, 6, 2225-2242.
80. Duguid, J., Smith, I., Dempster, G. and Edmunds, P. (1955) Non-flagellar filamentous appendages ('fimbriae') and haemagglutinating activity in Bacterium coli. Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology, 70, 335-348.
81. Duguid, J., Cleff, S. and Wilson, I. (1979) The fimbrial and nonfimbrial haemagglutinins of Escherichia coli. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 12, 213-227.
82. Ofek, I., Mirelman, D. and Sharon, N. (1977) Adherence of Escherichia coli to human mucosal cells mediated by mannose receptors. Nature, 265, 623-625.
83. Parkkinen, J., Virkola, R. and Korhonen, T. (1988) Identification of factors in human urine that inhibit the binding of Escherichia coli adhesins. Infection and Immunity, 56, 2623-2629.
84. Hull, R, Gill, R., Hsu, P et al. (1981) Construction and expression of recombinant plasmids encoding type 1 or D-mannose resistant pili from the urinary tract infection Escherichia coli isolate SHI. Infection and Immunity, 33, 933-938.
85. Klemm, P., Jorgensen, B., van Die, I. et al. (1985) The fim genes responsible for the synthesis of type 1 fimbriae in Escherichia coli, cloning and genetic organization. Molecular and General Genetics, 199, 410-414.
86. Minion, F, Abraham, S., Beachey, E. and Gougen, J. (1986) The genetic determinant of adhesive function in type 1 fimbriae of Escherichia coli is distinct from the gene encoding the fimbrial subunit. Journal of Bacteriology, 165, 1033-1036.
87. Aronson, M., Medalia, O., Schori, L. et al. (1979) Prevention of colonisation of the urinary tract of mice with Escherichia coli by blocking of bacterial adherence with methyl a-D-manno-pyranoside. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 139, 329.
88. Silverblatt, F. and Cohen, L. (1979) Anti pili antibody affords protection against experimental ascending pyelonephritis. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 64, 333-336.
89. Connell, H., Agace, W., Klemm, P. et al. (1996) Type 1 fimbrial adhesion enhances Escherichia coli virulence for the urinary tract. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 93, 9827-9832.
90. Jann, K. and Jann, B. (1985) Cell surface components and virulence: Escherichia coli O and K antigens in relation to virulence and pathogenicity, in The Virulence of Escherichia coli: Reviews and Methods, (ed. M. Sussman), Academic Press, London, pp 157-176..
91. Jann, K. (1985) Isolation and characterization of lipopolysaccharide (O and R antigens) from Escherichia coli, in The Virulence of Escherichia coli: Reviews and Methods, (ed. M. Sussman), Academic Press, London, pp. 365-374.
92. Lidin-Janson, G., Hanson, L. and Kaijser, B. (1977) Comparison of Escherichia coli from bacteriuric patients with those from feces of healthy school children. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 136, 346-353.
93. Zobell, C. (1943) The effect of solid surfaces on bacterial activity. Journal of Bacteriology, 46, 39-56.
94. Zafriri, D., Oron, Y., Eisenstein, B. and Ofek, I. (1987) Growth advantage and enhanced toxicity of Escherichia coli adherence to tissue culture cells due to restricted diffusion of products secreted by the cells. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 79, 1210-1216.
95. Costerton, J. W., Irvin, R. T. and Cheng, K.J. (1981) The bacterial glycoca-lyx in nature and disease. Annual Review of Microbiology, 35,399.
96. Robbins, J. B. (1978) Vaccines for the prevention of encapsulated bacterial diseases: current state, problems and prospects for the future. Immu-nochemistry, 15, 839-854.
97. Hagberg, L., Hellstrom, M., Jodal, U. et al. (1984) Difference in susceptibility to Gram-negative urinary tract infection between C3H/HeJ and C3H/HeN mice. Infection and Immunity, 46, 839-44.
98. Glynn, A. A., Brumfitt, W. and Howard, C. J. K. (1971) K antigens of Escherichia coli and renal involvement in urinary tract infections. Lancet, i, 514-516.
99. Svanborg-Eden, C, Hagberg, L. and Hull, R. (1987) Bacterial virulence versus host resistance in the urinary tracts of mice. Infection and Immunity, 55, 1224-1232.
100. Berger, H., Hacker, J., Juarez, A. etal. (1982) Cloning of the chromosomal determinants encoding hemolysin production and mannose resistant hemagglutination in Escherichia coli. Journal of Bacteriology, 152, 1241-1247.
101. Welch, R. A., Hull, R. and Falkow, S. (1983) Molecular cloning and physical characterization of a chromosomal hemolysin from Escherichia coli. Infection and Immunity, 42, 178-186.
102. Gadeberg, O. V. and 0rskov, I. (1984) In vitro cytotoxic effect of alpha-hemolytic Escherichia coli on human blood granulocytes. Infection and Immunity, 45, 255-260.
103. Marre, R., Hacker, J., Henkel, W. and Goebel, W (1986) Contribution of cloned virulence factors from uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains to nephropathogenicity in an experimental rat pyelonephritis model. Infection and Immunity, 54, 761-767.
104. Hacker, J., Hughes, C, Hof, I. and Goebel, W. (1983) Cloned hemolysin genes from Escherichia coli that cause urinary tract infections determine different levels of toxicity in mice. Infection and Immunity, 42, 57-63.
105. Connell, H., de Man, P., Jodal, U. et al. (1993) Lack of association between hemolysin and acute inflammation in human urinary tract infection. Microbial Pathology, 14, 463-472.
106. Hughes, C, Hacker, J., Roberts, A. and Goebel, W. (1983) Hemolysin production as a virulence marker in symptomatic urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli. Infection and Immunity, 39, 546-551.
107. Mackman, N. and Williams, P. H. (1985) Detection of a hemolysin production by clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, in The Virulence of Escherichia coli: Reviews and Methods, (ed. M. Sussman), Academic Press, London, pp. 425-429.
108. Bergstrom, T., Larsson, H., Linholm, K. and Winberg, J. (1972) Studies of UTI in infancy and childhood. XII. 80 consecutive patients with neonatal infection. Journal of Pediatrics, 80, 858-866.
109. Marild, S., Hellstrom, M., Jodal, U. et al. (1989) Correlation of bacterial adherence and inflammatory response in the urinary tract, in Host Parasite Interactions in Urinary Tract Infection, (eds E. Kass and C. Svanborg-Eden), University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, pp. 86-92.
110. Bullen, J. J., Rogers, H. J. and Griffiths, E. (1978) Role of iron in bacterial infections. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, 80, 1-35.
111. Carbonetti, M. H. and Williams, P. H. (1985) Detection of aerobactin production, in The Virulence of Escherichia coli; Reviews and Methods, (ed. M. Sussman), Academic Press, London, vol. 13, pp. 419-424.
112. 0rskov, I., Svanborg Eden, C, 0rskov, F. (1988) Aerobactin production of serotyped Escherichia coli from urinary tract infections. Medical Microbiology and Immunology (Berlin), 177, 9-14.
113. 0rskov, I., Williams, P. H., Svanborg Eden, C. and 0rskov, F. (1989) Assessment of biological and colony hybridization assays for detection of the aerobactin system in Escherichia coli from urinary tract infections. Medical Microbiology and Immunology (Berlin), 178, 143-148.
114. Stenqvist, K., Lidin-Janson, G., Sandberg, T. and Svanborg-Eden, C. (1989) Bacterial adhesion as an indicator of renal involvement in bacteruria in pregnancy. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 21, 193-199.
115. O'Grady, F. and Pennington, J. (1966) Bacterial growth in an in vitro system simulating conditions in the urinary bladder. British Journal of Experimental Pathology, 47, 283-290.
116. Cox, C. and Hinman, F. (1961) Experiments with induced bacteriuria, vesical emptying and bacterial growth on the mechanism of bladder defense to infection. Journal of Urology, 86, 739-748.
117. Roberts, J. (1975) Experimental pyelonephritis in the monkey. III. Pathophysiology of ureteral malfunction induced by bacteria. Investigative Urology, 13, 117-120.
118. Marild, S., Hellstrom, M., Jacobsson, B. etal. (1989) Influence of bacterial adhesion on ureteral width in children with acute pyelonephritis. Journal of Pediatrics, 115, 265-268.
119. Hodson, C, Maling, T, McManamon, P. and Lewis, M. (1975) The pathogenesis of reflux nephropathy (chronic atrophic pyelonephritis). British Journal of Radiology (Supplement), 13, 1-26.
120. Ransley, P. and Risdon, R. (1978) Reflux and renal scarring. British Journal of Radiology (Supplement), 14, 1-38.
121. De Man, P., Claeson, I., Johanson, I. M. etal. (1989) Bacterial attachment as a predictor of renal abnormalities in boys with urinary tract infection. Journal of Pediatrics, 115, 915-922.
122. Lamberg, H., Hansson, L., Jacobsson, B. et al. (1983) Correlation of P blood group phenotype, vesicoureteral reflux and bacterial attachment in patients with recurrent pyelonephritis. New England Journal of Medicine, 308, 1189-1192.
123. Kaye, D. (1968) Antibacterial activity of human urine. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 47, 2374-2390.
124. Asscher, A., Sussman, M., Waters, W. et al. (1966) Urine as a medium for bacterial growth. Lancet, ii, 1037-1041.
125. Kass, E. H. and Zangwill, D. P. (1960) Principles in the long-term management of chronic infection of the urinary tract, in Biology of Pyelonephritis, (eds E. L. Quinn and E. H. Kass), Little, Brown & Co., Boston, MA, pp. 663.
126. Chambers, S. and Kunin, C. (1985) The osmoprotective properties of urine for bacteria: The protective effect of betaine and human urine against low pH and high concentrations of electrolytes, sugars and urea. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 152, 1308-1316.
127. Norden, C, Green, G. and Kass, E. (1968) Antibacterial mechanisms of the urinary bladder. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 47, 2689-2700.
128. Schulte-Wissermann, H., Mannhardt, W, Schwarz, J. et al. (1985) Comparison of the antibacterial effect of uroepithelial cells from healthy donors and children of asymptomatic bacteriuria. European Journal of Pediatrics, 144, 230-233.
129. Connell, H., Sabharwal, H., Persson, L. et al. (1997) Identification of a novel antibacterial factor from human urine, in Infectiology, vol. 1, Urinary Tract Infection, (ed. T. Bergan), S. Karger, Basel, pp. 118-124.
130. Kallenius, G. and Winberg, J. (1978) Bacterial adherence to periurethral epithelial cells in girls prone to urinary tract infection. Lancet, ii, 540-542.
131. Fletcher, A., Neuberger, A. and Ratcliffe, A. (1970) Tamm-Horsfall urinary glycoprotein: the chemical composition. Biochemical Journal, 120, 417-424.
132. Fletcher, A., Neuberger, A. and Ratcliffe, A. (1970) Tamm-Horsfall urinary glycoprotein: the subunit structure. Biochemical Journal, 120, 425-432.
133. Sikri, K., Foster, C, Bloomfield, F. and Marshall, R. (1979) Localization by immunofluorescence and by light- and electronmicroscopic immuno-peroxidase techniques of Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein in adult hamster kidney. Biochemical Journal, 181, 525-532.
134. Parkkinen, J., Virkola, R. and Korhonen, T. K. (1983) Escherichia coli strains binding neuraminyl a2-3 galactosides. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 11, 456-461.
135. Fowler, J. and Stamey, E. (1977) Studies of introital colonization in women with recurrent urinary tract infection. VII. The role of bacterial adherence. Journal of Urology, 117, 472.
136. Stamey, T, Timothy, M., Millar, M. and Mihara, G. (1971) Recurrent urinary tract infections in adult women. The role of introital enter-obacteria. California Medicine, 115, 1-19.
137. Stamey, T. and Sexton, C. (1975) The role of vaginal colonization with Enterobacteriaceae in recurrent urinary tract infections. Journal of Urology, 113,214-217.
138. Svanborg-Eden, C. and Jodal, U. (1979) Attachment of Escherichia coli to urinary sediment cells from urinary tract infection prone and healthy children. Infection and Immunity, 26, 837-840.
139. Schaeffer, A., Jones, J. and Dunn, J. (1981) Association of in vitro Escherichia coli adherence to vaginal and buccal epithelial cells with susceptibility of women to recurrent urinary tract infection. New England Journal of Medicine, 304, 1062-1066.
140. Breimer, M., Hansson, G. and Leffler, H. (1985) The specific glycosphingolipid composition of human urethral epithelial cells. Journal of Biochemistry, 98, 1169-1180.
141. Marcus, D., Kundu, S. and Suguki, A. (1981) The P blood group system: recent progress in immunochemistry and genetics. Seminars in Hematology, 18, 63-71.
142. Kinane, D. F., Blackwell, C. C, Brettle, R. F. et al. (1982) ABO blood group, secretor state and susceptibility to recurrent urinary tract infection in women. British Medical Journal, 285, 7-9.
143. Beuth, J., Ko, H. L., Tunggal, L. and Pulverer, G. (1992) Harnwegs-infektionen durch Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift, 117, 687-691.
144. Lomberg, H., Jodal, U., Svanborg-Eden, C. et al. (1981) PI blood group and urinary tract infection. Lancet, i, 551-552.
145. Lomberg, FL, Hanson, L., Jacobsson, B. et al. (1983) Correlation of P blood group phenotype, vesicoureteral reflux and bacterial attachment in patients with recurrent pyelonephritis. New England Journal of Medicine, 308, 1189-1192.
146. Lomberg, H., Cedergren, B., Leffler, H. et al. (1986) Influence of blood group on the availability of receptors for attachment of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Infection and Immunity, 51, 919-926.
147. Lomberg, H., Jodal, U., Leffler, H. et al. (1992) Blood group non-secretors have an increased inflammatory response to urinary tract infection. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 24, 77-83.
148. Lomberg, H., Hellstrom, M., Jodal, U. and Svanborg-Eden, C. (1989) Secretor state and renal scarring in girls with recurrent pyelonephritis. FEMS Microbiology and Immunology, 47, 371-376.
149. Stapleton, A., Nudelman, E., Clausen, H. et al. (1992) Binding of uropathogenic Escherichia coli R45 to glycolipids extracted from vaginal epithelial cells is dependent on histo-blood group secretor status. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 90, 965-972.
150. De Man, P., Jodal, U. and Svanborg-Eden, C. (1991) Dependence among host response parameters used to diagnose urinary tract infection. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 163, 331-335.
151. Hedges, S., Anderson, P., Lidin-Janson, G. et al. (1991) Interleukin-6 response to deliberate colonization of the human urinary tract with gram-negative bacteria. Infection and Immunity, 59, 421-427.
152. Agace, W., Hedges, S., Ceska, M. and Svanborg, C. (1993) IL-8 and the neutrophil response to mucosal Gram negative infection. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 92, 780-785.
153. Hedges, S., Stenquist, K., Lidin-Janson, G. et al. (1992) Comparison of urine and serum concentrations of interleukin-6 in women with acute pyelonephritis or asymptomatic bacteriuria. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 166, 653-656.
154. Benson, M., Andreasson, A., Jodal, U. et al. (1994) Interleukin 6 in childhood urinary tract infection. Pediatric Infectious Diseases Journal, 13, 612-616.
155. Petersson, C, Hedges, S., Stenquist, K. etal. (1994) Suppressed antibody and Interleukin-6 responses to acute pyelonephritis in pregnancy. Kidney International, 45, 571-577.
156. Ko, Y. C, Mukaida, N., Ishiyama, S. et al. (1993) Elevated interleukin-8 levels in the urine of patients with urinary tract infections. Infection and Immunity, 61, 1307-1314.
157. Tullus, K., Fituri, O., Burman, L. et al. (1994) Interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 in the urine of children with acute pyelonephritis. Pediatric Nephrology, 8, 280-284.
158. Hedges, S., Svensson, M., Agace, W. and Svanborg, C. (1992) Cytokines induce an epithelial cell cytokine response, in Recent Advances in Mucosal Immunology, (eds J. McGhee, J. Mestecky, H. Tlaskalova and J. Sterzl), Plenum Press, New York.
159. Crestani, B., Cornillet, P., Dehoux, M. et al. (1994) Alveolar Type II epithelial cells produce interleukin 6 in vitro and in vivo. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 94, 731-740.
160. Standiford, T, Kunkel, S., Basha, M. et al. (1990) Interleukin-8 gene expression by a pulmonary epithelial cell line. A model for cytokine networks in the lung. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 86, 1945-1953.
161. Pugin, J., Schiirer, M., Leturcq, D. et al. (1993) Lipopolysaccharide activation of human endothelial and epithelial cells is mediated by lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and soluble CD14. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 90, 2744-2748.
162. Godaly, G., Offord, R., Proudfoot, A. et al. (in press) Escherichia coli induced transuroepithelial neutrophil migration: role of epithelial interleukin-8 and neutrophil IL-8 receptor A. Infection and Immunity.
163. Agace, W., Patarroyo, M, Svensson, M. et al. (1995) Escherichia coli induce trans-uroepithelial neutrophil migration by an ICAM-1 dependent mechanism. Infection and Immunity, 63, 4045-4062.
164. Svanborg-Eden, C, Briles, D., Hagberg, L. et al. (1984) Genetic factors in host resistance to urinary tract infection. Infection, 12, 118-123.
165. Agace, W., Hedges, S. and Svanborg, C. (1992) Lps genotype in the C57 black mouse background and its influence on the interleukin-6 response to E. coli urinary tract infection. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, 35, 531-538.
166. Miller, T., Findon, G. and Cawley, S. (1987) Cellular basis of host defence in pyelonephritis. III. Deletion of individual components. British Journal of Experimental Pathology, 68, 377-388.
167. Andersen, H. J., Hanson, L. A., Lincoln, K. et al. (1965) Studies of urinary tract infections in infancy and childhood. IV. Relation of the coli antibody titre to clinical picture and serological type. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica, 54, 247-259.
168. Brumfitt, W. and Hamilton-Miller, J. M. T. (1981) Pyelonephritis and urinary tract infection: some recent developments. Dialysis and Transplantation, 10, 704-712.
169. Winberg, J., Anderson, H., Hanson, L. and Lincoln, K. (1963) Studies of urinary tract infection in infancy and childhood. I. Antibody response in different types of urinary tract infections caused by coliform bacteria. British Medical Journal, ii, 524.
170. Percival, A., Brumfitt, W. and DeLouvois, J. (1964) Serum antibody levels as an indication of clinically inapparent pyelonephritis. Lancet, ii, 1027-1033.
171. Sohl-Akerlund, A., Ahlstedt, S., Hanson, L. A. and Jodal, U. (1979) Antibody responses in urine and serum against Escherichia coli O antigen in childhood urinary tract infections. Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica, 87, 29-36.
172. Svanborg-Eden, C. and Svennerholm, A.-M. (1978) Secretory immunoglobulin A and G antibodies prevent adhesion of Escherichia coli to human urinary tract epithelial cells. Infection and Immunity, 22, 790-797.
173. Svanborg-Eden, C, Kulhavy, R, Marild, S. et al. (1985) Urinary immunoglobulins in healthy individuals and children with acute pyelonephritis. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, 21, 305-
174. Svanborg-Eden, C, Hagberg, L., Briles, D. et al. (1985) Susceptibility of Escherichia coli urinary tract infection and LPS responsiveness, in Genetic Control of Host Resistance to Infection and Malignancy, (ed. E. Skamene), Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 385-391.
175. Brooks, S., Lyons, J. and Braude, A. (1974) Immunization against retrograde pyelonephritis. American Journal of Pathology, 74, 345-354.
176. Kaijser, B., Larsson, P. and Schneerson, R. (1983) Protection against acute, ascending pyelonephritis caused by Escherichia coli in rats using isolated capsular antigen conjugated to a carrier substance. Infection and Immunity, 39, 142-146.
177. Pecha, B., Low, D. and O'Hanley, P. (1989) Gal-Gal pili vaccines prevent pyelonephritis by piliated Escherichia coli in a murine model. Single-component Gal-Gal pili vaccines prevent pyelonephritis by homologous and heterologous piliated E. coli strains. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 83, 2102-2108.
178. Schmidt, M. A., O'Hanley, P., Lark, D. et al. (1988) Synthetic peptides corresponding to protective epitopes of Escherichia coli Gal-Gal pilin prevent infection in a murine pyelonephritis model. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 85, 1247-1251.
179. Riittgers, H. and Grischke, E. (1987) Elevation of secretory IgA antibodies in the urinary tract by immunostimulation for the pre-operative treatment and post-operative prevention of urinary tract infections. Urology International, 42, 1-3.
180. Grischke, E. M. and Riittgers, E. M. (1987) Treatment of bacterial infections of the female urinary tract by immunization of the patients. Urology International, 42, 338-341.

Back To Homepage: Womens Health Advice


original content

WOMENS HEALTH ADVICE: ABOUT URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS
Sources
Please Note: Information provided on this site is no substitute for professional medical help. See Disclaimer.
Copyright. All rights reserved.